# Algorithms on Graphs

In this article, you will delve into the fascinating world of algorithms on graphs, an essential topic in Further Mathematics. You will begin by exploring the basic concepts and notation in graph theory, followed by different types of graph algorithms that can be categorised under various strategies. You will then gain a deeper understanding of approximating, optimal, greedy, and interval graph algorithms. Moreover, this article sheds light on algorithms that can detect negative cycles in graphs and their practical applications. Finally, you will see real-world examples of algorithms on graphs, such as Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm, Kruskal's minimum spanning tree algorithm, and the Ford-Fulkerson max flow algorithm. These examples will help solidify your grasp of the subject, equipping you with the knowledge to apply graph algorithms effectively in various mathematical contexts.

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Table of contents

## Introduction to Algorithms on Graphs

Algorithms on Graphs are a vital component of further mathematics and advanced computer science concepts. They play an essential role in various fields such as network design, social networks, project management, and pathfinding in video games. This article will guide you in understanding the basic concepts of graph theory and algorithm types to analyze graphs effectively.

### Basic concepts and notation in graph theory

Before diving deep into algorithms on graphs, it is crucial to understand a few key concepts and notations used in graph theory. A graph is a mathematical representation of a set of objects (vertices) connected by lines (edges).

In graph theory, a vertex (also called a node) is a fundamental element that represents an entity, and an edge represents a connection or relation between two vertices.

There are several notations in graph theory, including:

• $$V(G)$$ - represents the vertex set of graph $$G$$
• $$E(G)$$ - represents the edge set of graph $$G$$
• $$deg(v)$$ - represents the degree of vertex $$v$$
• $$|V(G)|$$ and $$|E(G)|$$ - denote the number of vertices and edges in graph $$G$$, respectively

For instance, consider the graph $$G$$ with vertices $$V(G) = \{A, B, C\}$$ and edges $$E(G) = \{AB, AC, BC\}$$. Here, $$deg(A) = 2$$, since there are two connections (edges) to vertex $$A$$.

## Types of graph algorithms

Graph algorithms are techniques that process graphs to accomplish specific tasks. These algorithms can be classified into several categories based on their purpose, such as:

1. Traversal algorithms
2. Shortest path algorithms
3. Connectivity algorithms
4. Flow network algorithms
5. Graph matching algorithms

### Traversal algorithms

Traversal algorithms are used to visit every vertex in a graph, ensuring that no vertex is left unvisited. There are two well-known traversal algorithms:

• Depth-First Search (DFS)
• Breadth-First Search (BFS)
DFS Algorithm:
1. Start at a vertex v
2. Mark vertex v as visited
3. For each adjacent vertex u, if u is not visited, recursively perform DFS on u
BFS Algorithm:
1. Start at a vertex v
2. Mark vertex v as visited
3. Queue all adjacent vertices
4. For each vertex in the queue, visit that vertex and enqueue adjacent vertices not yet visited

### Shortest path algorithms

Shortest path algorithms find the shortest path between vertices in a graph. The most popular algorithms are:

• Dijkstra's algorithm
• Bellman-Ford algorithm
• Floyd-Warshall algorithm
• A* search algorithm

To understand this concept further:

Dijkstra's algorithm is an optimal algorithm that efficiently finds the shortest path in a graph with non-negative edge weights, while the Bellman-Ford algorithm works with negative edge weights but detects negative cycles as well.

### Connectivity algorithms

Connectivity algorithms determine if two vertices in a graph are connected. Well-known connectivity algorithms include:

• Kruskal's algorithm
• Prim's algorithm
• Tarjan's algorithm

### Flow network algorithms

Flow network algorithms deal with capacities in a directed graph, attempting to maximize the flow between a source and a sink. Two major flow network algorithms are:

• Ford-Fulkerson algorithm
• Edmonds-Karp algorithm

### Graph matching algorithms

Graph matching algorithms find the best possible matching between the vertices of two graphs. Some dominant graph matching algorithms include:

• Hopcroft-Karp algorithm
• Edmonds' algorithm (blossom method)
• Maximum-weighted matching algorithm

Understanding these graph algorithm categories and their implementations will enable you to effectively analyze and solve complex graph-related problems in various domains.

## Explanation of Algorithms on Graphs

Algorithms on Graphs are various methods and techniques employed to process and analyse graphs to achieve distinct results, such as determining shortest paths between vertices, ascertaining connection between vertices, optimising flow in a network, and finding the best vertex matching. In this section, we will explore approximating, optimal, greedy, and interval graph algorithms to better understand their purposes and implementations.

### Approximating algorithms on graphs

Approximating algorithms on graphs are heuristic techniques that aim to offer a near-optimal solution to graph-related problems, especially when finding an exact solution is computationally expensive or impractical. These algorithms are beneficial in cases where real-life applications require rapid results over optimality, or when the optimal algorithm is too complex and time-consuming to execute.

Some of the primary approximating algorithms on graphs include:

• Vertex cover approximation
• Travelling salesman problem approximation
• Maximal independent set approximation
• Minimax path approximation

For example, the travelling salesman problem approximation uses algorithms like the nearest neighbour, minimum spanning tree, and Christofides to efficiently estimate a near-optimal solution rather than finding the exact shortest path, which is an NP-hard problem.

#### Optimal algorithms on graphs

Optimal algorithms on graphs, as opposed to approximating algorithms, are designed to find the best possible solutions to a given graph problem. These algorithms guarantee the precise optimal solution, often at the cost of higher computation time and complexity, especially when the size of the graph increases.

Some well-known optimal algorithms on graphs are:

• Dijkstra's algorithm (for shortest path)
• Floyd-Warshall algorithm (for all-pairs shortest paths)
• Kruskal's algorithm (for minimum spanning tree)
• Prim's algorithm (for minimum spanning tree)

In a weighted graph, Dijkstra's algorithm finds the exact shortest path from a source vertex to any other reachable vertices, as long as all edge weights are non-negative. This algorithm is optimal and guarantees the correct solution, but may take longer to execute, especially on larger graphs.

#### Greedy algorithms on graphs

Greedy algorithms on graphs refer to methods that make locally optimal choices at each step in the hope of achieving a globally optimal result. Greedy algorithms are relatively simple, easy to implement, and execute faster than many other algorithms. However, they do not guarantee an optimal solution to all graph-related issues but can produce near-optimal results in specific scenarios.

Some notable greedy algorithms on graphs are:

• Prim's algorithm (for minimum spanning tree)
• Kruskal's algorithm (for minimum spanning tree)
• Dijkstra's algorithm (for shortest path)
• Huffman coding (for data compression)

For instance, Kruskal's algorithm is a greedy approach to find the minimum spanning tree (MST) of an undirected graph. It starts with an empty MST and iteratively adds an edge with the lowest weight that doesn't form a cycle until the MST is complete.

#### Interval graph algorithms

Interval graph algorithms are a specialised category of graph algorithms that focus on interval graphs. An interval graph is a type of graph where each vertex represents an interval on the real line, and two vertices have an edge if their corresponding intervals intersect. Interval graph algorithms solve specific problems such as colouring, scheduling, and resource allocation by exploiting the unique properties of interval graphs.

Some key interval graph algorithms include:

• Gilmore's algorithm (for minimum vertex colouring)
• Interval graph recognition algorithm
• Maximum clique enumeration algorithm
• Resource allocation algorithms

Gilmore's algorithm is an interval graph algorithm used for solving the minimum vertex colouring problem. It colours the vertices of an interval graph with the least number of colours such that no two adjacent vertices share the same colour. Gilmore's algorithm utilises the specific structure of interval graphs to colour the graph optimally, more efficiently than the general-purpose graph colouring algorithms.

## Algorithms on Graphs Negative Cycle

In graph theory, the term 'negative cycle' refers to a cycle in a graph where the sum of edge weights is negative. Detecting and resolving negative cycles are crucial in various applications, as they can affect the performance and accuracy of several graph algorithms, particularly in the context of shortest paths and minimisation problems.

### Detecting negative cycles in graphs

Detecting negative cycles in graphs is an essential step in graph analysis and has significant implications for the application of several algorithms. There are multiple techniques and algorithms designed explicitly for this purpose, which primarily focus on shortest-path problems. These algorithms include:

• Bellman-Ford-Moore algorithm
• Floyd-Warshall algorithm
• Johnson's algorithm

The Bellman-Ford-Moore algorithm is an iterative, single-source shortest-path algorithm that works with weighted graphs containing both positive and negative edge weights. It can detect negative weight cycles reachable from the source vertex.

Bellman-Ford-Moore Algorithm:
1. Initialise distance values for all vertices: 0 for the source vertex, and infinity for others
2. Relax each edge (u, v) in the graph V-1 times, where V is the number of vertices.
3. Check for negative cycles by relaxing each edge once more; if the distance value gets updated, then a negative cycle exists.

Another algorithm to detect negative cycles is the Floyd-Warshall algorithm, which finds all-pairs shortest paths:

Floyd-Warshall Algorithm:
1. Initialise the distance matrix with shortest paths between all adjacent vertices
2. For each vertex k in the graph:
3.   For each vertex pair (i, j):
4.     If the distance from i to j through vertex k is shorter than the direct path, update the distance matrix
5. Check for negative cycle by verifying if any values on the diagonal of the distance matrix are negative.

Similarly, Johnson's algorithm is designed for efficient all-pairs shortest-path computation. It combines Dijkstra's and Bellman-Ford algorithms to find the shortest paths and detect negative cycles simultaneously.

Johnson's algorithm first re-weights all edge costs using the Bellman-Ford algorithm to ensure all edge costs are non-negative; this allows the subsequent use of Dijkstra's algorithm to compute all-pairs shortest paths. If a negative cycle is detected during the re-weighting process, the algorithm will terminate, indicating the existence of a negative cycle.

### Applications of negative cycle algorithms

Negative cycle algorithms have numerous applications in various fields related to graph analysis, optimisation problems, and real-life problem-solving. Some of these applications include:

• Network routing
• Project scheduling
• Economic market equilibrium
• Dynamic systems stability analysis
• Financial risk management

In network routing problems, detecting and resolving negative cycles is crucial to find optimal routing paths and avoid situations where packets endlessly loop in the network because of negative cost cycles. Negative cycle algorithms such as Bellman-Ford and Floyd-Warshall can be used to detect such cycles before finding the shortest path for packet transmission.

Project scheduling problems, including precedence-constrained resource allocation problems, can be modelled using graphs where vertices represent tasks, and edges represent precedence relationships. Some graph algorithms, such as the Critical Path Method (CPM), may be susceptible to negative cycles when task completion times are underestimated. Detecting and resolving such cycles help prevent project delays and improve resource utilisation.

In economic market equilibrium problems, the existence of negative cycles corresponds to the presence of arbitrage opportunities, allowing traders to make risk-free profits. Negative cycle detection algorithms can be used in financial risk management systems to identify and eliminate possible arbitrage situations, ensuring market stability and fairness.

Dynamic systems stability analysis often deals with determining the stability of recursive updates, which are described as directed weighted graphs. Detecting negative cycles in these graphs helps systems engineers identify the potential instability in dynamic control systems and develop stabilisation strategies accordingly.

Detection and resolution of negative cycles play a crucial role in applying graph algorithms to various real-life problems, ensuring optimal problem-solving and accurate results. The use of negative cycle algorithms such as Bellman-Ford, Floyd-Warshall, and Johnson's algorithms are indispensable in many complex problem-solving domains ranging from network design and project scheduling to economic market equilibrium and dynamic systems analysis.

## Examples of Algorithms on Graphs

In this section, we will delve deeper into some specific graph algorithms, including Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm, Kruskal's minimum spanning tree algorithm, and the Ford-Fulkerson maximum flow algorithm. Understanding these examples thoroughly will immensely strengthen your knowledge of graph algorithms and applications in various fields.

### Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm

Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm is a popular graph algorithm used to find the shortest path between a source vertex and all other vertices in a given weighted graph. It is particularly effective in graphs with positive edge weights, ensuring an optimal solution. The main idea behind Dijkstra's algorithm is to iteratively select the unvisited vertex with the minimum distance value and update the distance values of its adjacent vertices.

The algorithm consists of the following steps:

1. Assign an initial distance value to each vertex: 0 for the source vertex, and infinity for the others.
2. Mark all vertices as unvisited.
3. While there are unvisited vertices:
4.   Choose the unvisited vertex (u) with the minimum distance value.
5.   Mark u as visited.
6.   For each neighbour (v) of u:
7.     Calculate the alternative path distance through u.
8.     If the alternative path distance is less than the current distance value for v:
9.       Update the distance value of v.

Dijkstra's algorithm guarantees the shortest path from the source vertex to any other vertex in a graph with non-negative edge weights. The time complexity of this algorithm is $$O(|V|^2)$$ for an adjacency matrix implementation, which improves to $$O(|V|+|E|\log|V|)$$ when using a priority queue.

Consider a graph with vertices A, B, C, and D, and weighted edges (A, B) = 10, (A, C) = 5, (C, B) = 4, (B, D) = 5, (C, D) = 20. If we apply Dijkstra's algorithm with the source vertex A, we obtain the shortest path distances: A=0, B=9, C=5, D=14.

#### Kruskal's minimum spanning tree algorithm

Kruskal's algorithm is a greedy method for finding the minimum spanning tree (MST) of an undirected graph. The MST is a tree that spans all vertices in the graph and minimises the sum of edge weights. Kruskal's algorithm builds the MST iteratively by selecting edges with the lowest weight that don't form a cycle.

Here is the outline of Kruskal's algorithm:

1. Sort all edges in the graph by their weights in non-decreasing order.
2. Initialise an empty set (or forest) to store the MST.
3. For each edge (u, v) with weight w in the sorted list:
4.   If adding (u, v) to the MST does not form a cycle:
5.     Add (u, v) to the MST.
6. Return the MST.

Using a disjoint-set data structure for cycle detection, Kruskal's algorithm has a time complexity of $$O(|E|\log|E|)$$, making it a highly efficient method for constructing the MST of a graph.

Consider an undirected graph with vertices A, B, C, and D, and weighted edges (A, B) = 1, (A, C) = 2, (A, D) = 3, (B, C) = 5, (B, D) = 4, (C, D) = 6. Applying Kruskal's algorithm, we get the minimum spanning tree with edges (A, B), (A, C), and (A, D), with a total weight of 6.

#### Ford-Fulkerson max flow algorithm

The Ford-Fulkerson algorithm is a method for solving the maximum flow problem in a network. Given a directed graph with capacities defined on the edges, the algorithm seeks to find the maximum amount of flow that can be routed between a source vertex and a sink vertex without violating the given capacities.

The Ford-Fulkerson algorithm adopts an iterative approach by incrementally increasing the flow through the network using augmenting paths. The algorithm's core steps are as follows:

1. Initialise the residual graph with the same vertices and capacities as the original graph.
2. Set all flows to 0.
3. While there is an augmenting path in the residual graph from the source to the sink:
4.   Find the residual capacity (bottleneck value) of the augmenting path.
5.   Update the flow values along the path and the residual capacities in the residual graph.
6. Return the maximum flow value.

The running time of the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm is dependent on the choice of augmenting paths and the maximum flow value. Using the Edmonds-Karp modification, which selects the shortest augmenting paths, the algorithm has a time complexity of $$O(|V||E|^2)$$, providing a practical solution to the maximum flow problem in various applications such as network routing, job scheduling, and matching.

Consider a directed graph with vertices S (source), A, B, T (sink), and capacities (S, A) = 3, (S, B) = 2, (A, B) = 1, (A, T) = 2, (B, T) = 3. Applying the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm, we obtain the maximum flow value of 3, attained by routing 2 units of flow from S to A to T and 1 unit of flow from S to B to T.

## Algorithms on Graphs - Key takeaways

• Algorithms on Graphs: Techniques to process and analyze graphs, used in various fields such as network design, social networks, and project management

• Graph Theory Concepts: Vertex (node), edge, V(G) and E(G) to represent the vertex set and edge set of graph G, degree of a vertex (deg(v))

• Types of Graph Algorithms: Traversal, shortest path, connectivity, flow network, and graph matching algorithms

• Negative Cycles: Cycles with negative-sum edge weights, can be detected using Bellman-Ford-Moore or Floyd-Warshall algorithms

• Examples of Algorithms on Graphs: Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm, Kruskal's minimum spanning tree algorithm, Ford-Fulkerson max flow algorithm

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##### Frequently Asked Questions about Algorithms on Graphs

Which algorithm check negative cycle in a graph?

The Bellman-Ford algorithm checks for negative cycles in a graph. It finds the shortest path between nodes, but unlike Dijkstra's algorithm, it can handle negative edge weights, making it suitable for detecting negative cycles.

What is greedy algorithm in graph theory?

A greedy algorithm in graph theory is a problem-solving approach that makes the best local choice at each step, aiming to find the global optimum solution. The algorithm makes decisions based on current information, without considering future consequences or the entire graph structure, often yielding efficient and practical solutions.

What is meant by graph search algorithm?

A graph search algorithm refers to a systematic technique used for traversing or exploring the vertices and edges of a graph data structure. The objective is often to find particular paths, visit all vertices, or solve specific problems. Common examples include Depth-First Search (DFS) and Breadth-First Search (BFS).

What is an example of algorithms on graphs?

An example of algorithms on graphs is Dijkstra's algorithm, which finds the shortest path between a given starting node and all other nodes in a weighted graph.

How do you solve approximation algorithms?

To solve approximation algorithms, first identify the problem that needs an approximate solution, usually NP-hard problems. Then, develop a suitable algorithm, ensuring its time complexity is polynomial. analyse the algorithm's performance and approximation ratio, which compares the solution's quality to the optimal solution. Finally, iterate and refine the algorithm if necessary.

## Test your knowledge with multiple choice flashcards

What are the two main graph traversal algorithms?

Which algorithm finds the shortest path in a graph with non-negative edge weights?

What is the main purpose of graph connectivity algorithms?

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