Select your language

Suggested languages for you:
Log In Start studying!
StudySmarter - The all-in-one study app.
4.8 • +11k Ratings
More than 3 Million Downloads
Free
|
|

All-in-one learning app

  • Flashcards
  • NotesNotes
  • ExplanationsExplanations
  • Study Planner
  • Textbook solutions
Start studying

Geography

Save Save
Print Print
Edit Edit
Sign up to use all features for free. Sign up now
Geography

Geography students will deal with a variety of topics throughout their studies. It is important to be able to draw links and distinctions within these topics and develop a thorough understanding of their significance in their respective local and broader contexts.

What is geography?

Geography is a diverse field that can be defined as the study of the Earth’s landscapes, peoples, places, and environments.
Studying geography will provide you with a nuanced understanding of some of the world’s most pressing current issues, ranging from global warming to human rights and global tensions.

Topics and learning goals of geography

The topics we cover on StudySmarter will provide you with a thorough understanding of the Earth and its anthropological features.
Here are the core geography topics offered on StudySmarter:

Dynamic landscapes

In the topic of dynamic landscapes, we explore the various ways that tectonics affect the Earth’s physical and human systems. This involves understanding tectonic theory and how it explains landform formation, including tectonic hazards and their implications. Some of these implications include the causes and impact of natural disasters. We provide in-depth case studies for various natural hazards, their trends and patterns, as well as any possible mitigation and adaptation strategies.

Geography active volcano mount merapi StudySmarter

Glaciated landscapes

This topic explores historical climate change and the reasons behind it, and how this may have affected glaciation. Then we look at glacial environments as a system of stores, inputs/outputs, and transfers, as well as specific glacial processes that explain why glacial landscapes are what they are. We also consider the significance of glacial environments for the biosphere and climate, as well as their effects on the local and global population and how human activities can alter these.

Geography glacier StudySmarter

Coasts

The topic of coasts explores why and how coastal landscapes are different and the importance of the underlying geology in these differences.
You will understand how waves, erosion, transportation, deposition, and sub-aerial processes help create the characteristic coastal landscape. We will then look at the coastal risk of sea-level changes, retreat, and flooding. Finally, we look at how coastlines can be managed through engineering approaches, the governance and management around this, and how it can lead to winners and losers.

Biology coast StudySmarter

Globalisation

Globalisation is a very current topic that explores the reasons behind our modern-interconnected world. The topics explore how governments form various socioeconomic policies, Intergovernmental Organisations (IGOs) and Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs) and their roles in shaping the global landscape, and the significant impact of Transnational Corporations (TNCs) on globalisation. We will look at the implications of a globalised world in relation to population structures, culture, and development, as well as responses to the effects of globalisation.

Geography globalisation Earth StudySmarter

Regenerating places

This topic looks at regeneration and the economy, focusing on case studies in the UK. It explores how certain types of economic activity alter the functions of particular areas and their collateral effects on people’s lived experiences and attachments. When we cover the fundamentals of a social environment, we will look at various approaches to regeneration, with a particular focus on evaluating the success of a regeneration project.

Diverse places

The topic of diverse places studies the nature and causes of different areas, both in a global and more local context (i.e. the differences between nations and urban/rural divides within nations). In order to understand this, we explore the past and present causes for changes within areas as well as their effects on people. Social, economic, and environmental aspects are considered, and multiple case studies better our understanding of the effects of these changes on an area’s socioeconomic environment.

Water

This topic introduces the water cycle and the physical mechanisms behind the pattern of global water distribution. After understanding the processes, we look at their effects on different areas and their implications for the physical and human environment. There is a specific focus on the modern environment in relation to water security and the changing climate. The topic includes case studies that exemplify the world’s current water supplies and how they are managed.

Geography water droplet StudySmarter

Energy security

Energy security and the carbon cycle are especially important to understand the world’s current physical and geo-political situation. You will learn about the mechanisms behind the carbon cycle and how it relates to energy supplies and climate change. We also look at the anthropological effects on the carbon cycle and energy supplies. This includes the implications of fossil fuel consumption, alternative energy sources and the causes and results of the patterns in demand for resources.

Superpowers of the World

‘Superpowers of the world’ looks at the historical dominance of certain nations in the wider world, how current superpowers have changed and the reasons behind this. We will evaluate the methods of deciding what a superpower is and how a nation could achieve this status. Once we have a firm understanding of what makes a superpower and how a nation becomes one, we will look at which nations could potentially become future superpowers and (by utilising case studies) evaluate the likelihood of various nations’ rise to power.

Health and human rights

Health and human rights is a varied topic that combines aspects of economics, politics and sociology. We will look at how we can measure human development, the role of governments and IGOs in this development, and the degrees of their success in increasing development. We will focus greatly on ‘The Universal Declaration of Human Rights’ and the extent to which it is followed, why it is followed, and the reasons why it is sometimes disregarded. Various forms of interventions will be studied (such as military interventions or aid) in order to better understand global perspectives on health and human rights.

Migration

Migration focuses largely on the causes behind migrations and the formations of various identities and their implications for the wider socio-economic environment. We will explore the various approaches and responses to migration and their connection to identity, and how this could explain specific tensions and failed states.

How can StudySmarter support my geography studies?

On StudySmarter, you will have the opportunity to develop a thorough understanding of the content in geography as well as the necessary skills required to pass your exams and become an excellent geographer. Our platform is designed in a way such that you can approach each topic with your own learning strategy and at your own pace. Therefore, regardless of your level of understanding of the subject, you can expand your geographical knowledge and ace your next geography exam.

Geography planet Earth illustration globe StudySmarter

  • At StudySmarter, you will find summaries for all important topics for your education.
  • Use exercises and flashcards on the StudySmarter App to further your knowledge.
  • Join study groups and wider learning communities.
  • Prepare for your next exam with the #1 learning app.

Learning goals of geography

Within StudySmarter, we will aim to help you develop an in-depth understanding of the specific topic within the school specification as well as how other topics directly link to the one at hand. We will also have certain dedicated articles to help you develop good exam techniques and tips on structuring your work. StudySmarter also provides resources such as summaries, key takeaways, and frequently asked questions for each article to help you reinforce your knowledge.
We divide geography topics into different levels of depth. The summary articles will hold brief but key background information on a given topic while further articles that are linked to summaries will provide in-depth and detailed information about specific topics.

Final Geography Quiz

Question

What are tectonic plates?

Show answer

Answer

Tectonic plates are the sections of the lithosphere.

Show question

Question

What are some examples of tectonic hazards?


Show answer

Answer

Examples of tectonic hazards include volcanic activities, earthquakes and tsunamis.

Show question

Question

What is continental drift?


Show answer

Answer

Continental drift is the movement of the continents of Earth after the separation from Pangaea, one large continent.

Show question

Question

Why was the theory of plate tectonics proposed?


Show answer

Answer

The theory of plate tectonics was proposed when the outline of tectonic plates was found in 1960 after seismographs were used to test for atomic bombs during World War II. This recorded the vibrations of earthquakes which allowed them to discover the epicentres of the earthquakes.

Show question

Question

What is seafloor spreading?


Show answer

Answer

Seafloor spreading is when magma fills the gap with rock as the tectonic plates move apart.

Show question

Question

How does palaeomagnetism explain seafloor spreading?


Show answer

Answer

Palaeomagnetism explains seafloor spreading because scientists found that some of the rocks in the ocean ground have magnetic signatures in opposite directions to the rocks next to them. This indicates that the new magnetic alignment is the magma that fills in between tectonic plates.

Show question

Question

What is mantle convection?


Show answer

Answer

Mantle convection is the movement of magma due to its variation in temperature and density, which also causes the tectonic plates to move.

Show question

Question

What is subduction?


Show answer

Answer

Subduction is when the denser tectonic plate is pushed underneath the other plate.

Show question

Question

What is slab pull?


Show answer

Answer

Slab pull is the gravitational pull that causes the denser plate to further move after subduction.

Show question

Question

What are the different layers within the structure of Earth?


Show answer

Answer

The different layers within the Earth are the crust, mantle, outer core and inner core.

Show question

Question

How many major tectonic plates are there?


Show answer

Answer

There are seven major tectonic plates.

Show question

Question

What are some named examples of tectonic plates?


Show answer

Answer

Examples of tectonic plates are the African, Antarctic, Eurasian, Indo-Australian, North American, Pacific and South American tectonic plates.

Show question

Question

What is the continental crust made of?


Show answer

Answer

The continental crust is made of granite rock that comprises quartz, feldspar, and other relatively lightweight material, mostly silicon and aluminium.

Show question

Question

What is the oceanic crust made of?


Show answer

Answer

The oceanic crust is made of basaltic rock and other materials predominantly of silicon and magnesium.

Show question

Question

How do tectonic plates float on the mantle?


Show answer

Answer

Tectonic plates float on the mantle due to the composition of the rocks within the plates that make them less dense than the mantle.

Show question

Question

What are tectonic processes?

Show answer

Answer

Tectonic processes are interactions between tectonic plates that impact the structure of the Earth’s crust.

Show question

Question

Why do tectonic processes occur?


Show answer

Answer

Tectonic processes occur due to the movement of tectonic plates relative to each other. The cause of the movement of tectonic plates can be summarised by mantle convection, subduction and slab pull.

Show question

Question

What occurs at divergent plate boundaries?


Show answer

Answer

At divergent plate boundaries (also known as constructive plate boundaries), the plates are moving away from each other. This occurs as the convection current of the mantle pushes the plates apart, generating a gap in between, causing magma to fill the gap and producing a new crust.

Show question

Question

What are the consequences of divergent plate boundaries?


Show answer

Answer

Most are located at ocean ridges and generate low magnitude earthquakes. Divergent boundaries between continental plates often form rift valleys.

Show question

Question

What occurs at convergent plate boundaries?


Show answer

Answer

Convergent/destructive plate boundaries are where plates are moving towards each other. When an oceanic crust and a continental crust meet, the denser oceanic crust is pushed below the continental crust (also known as subduction). The oceanic crust underneath is destroyed in the process. When continental plates collide, it can also cause either one or both of the plates to buckle up.

Show question

Question

What are the consequences of convergent plate boundaries?


Show answer

Answer

When an oceanic crust meets with another oceanic crust, subduction also occurs. Island arcs and oceanic trenches are often created. When continental plates collide, it can also cause either one or both of the plates to buckle up, consequently forming mountain ranges.

Show question

Question

What occurs at conservative plate boundaries?


Show answer

Answer

The regions where plates are sliding past each other in the horizontal direction are called the conservative plate boundaries or transform plate boundaries. Due to the irregularity of the surface of the plates caused by rocks, the friction and pressure build-up and the plates eventually slide past each other, causing frequent earthquakes.

Show question

Question

What are the consequences of conservative plate boundaries?


Show answer

Answer

The rocks from the plates are pulverised and often create fault valleys or undersea canyons.

Show question

Question

What are the impacts of tectonic plate movement?


Show answer

Answer

The movement of tectonic plates relative to each other leads to tectonic processes, which are interactions between tectonic plates that impact the structure of the Earth’s crust. Tectonic processes can lead to tectonic hazards.

Show question

Question

What is a hegemon?


Show answer

Answer

A hegemon is a supreme power that is dominant over many other countries. The United States is the only hegemonic power at the moment.

Show question

Question

What is an emerging superpower of the world?


Show answer

Answer

Emerging superpowers are countries that have gained increasing power on the global stage over the recent years. BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) is a term coined by an ex-Goldman Sach executive to describe countries with the highest potential.

Show question

Question

What are the measures of dominance?


Show answer

Answer

Measures of dominance are the methods used by nations to develop their power. Measures of dominance vary between countries and change over time. There are three main groups:

1.  Economic Power and Size

2.  Political and Military Power

3.  Culture, Demographics and Resources

Show question

Question

Why is economic power and size important for superpower status?


Show answer

Answer

Economic power and size influence the purchasing power of the nation’s currency. If a country’s currency is strong, the exports will be more valuable than its imports. Continued economic growth will encourage the country to effectively and independently exploit its resources.

Show question

Question

Which emerging power shares a common language with the United States?


Show answer

Answer

India is an emerging power that shares the common language of English with the United States. This allows for a higher level of international job opportunities for the educated population of the country.

Show question

Question

What are the BRIC countries?


Show answer

Answer

BRIC is Brazil, Russia, India and China. BRIC are well-known emerging powers.

Show question

Question

Why is the stool of sustainability a useful concept to understand in the development of superpowers?


Show answer

Answer

The stool of sustainability contains the ‘legs’ that allow a country to hold its superpower status. If one leg falls short, this will suggest that the nation may be unstable and therefore unable to retain its status. For example, the demise of Evergrande in China (2021) is scaring investors about the future of China’s economy.

Show question

Question

When did the last global depression happen?

Show answer

Answer

The last global depression occurred following the Great Depression in the United States in the 1920s.

Show question

Question

What are two statistics commonly used to measure superpower economic size and power?


Show answer

Answer

Economic size and power are classically measured by the superpower’s GDP per capita and total exports.

Show question

Question

Which country has the highest military spending in the world?


Show answer

Answer

The US has the highest military spending, measuring at 778US$B.

Show question

Question

Which superpower has the largest GDP per capita?


Show answer

Answer

Singapore is the largest superpower with the largest GDP per capita alongside the US.

Show question

Question

European Union and the United Nations Security Council are examples of what types of power according to the measures of dominance?


Show answer

Answer

European Union and the United Nations Security Council are examples of political and military power.

Show question

Question

Why does Singapore have a number of national languages?


Show answer

Answer

Singapore has multiple national languages due to its historical colonisation of other countries, which has produced a culturally diverse population.

Show question

Question

What metals are abundant in Russia?


Show answer

Answer

Russia is abundant in Cobalt, Chrome, Copper, Gold.

Show question

Question

Who produces the largest number of exports, in terms of US$?


Show answer

Answer

The US produces the largest number of exports, at 1.51T US$.

Show question

Question

What is energy security?

Show answer

Answer

A country has energy security when uninterrupted and affordable energy is available on a national level.

Show question

Question

Why is energy security important?


Show answer

Answer

It is vital to a country as it is needed to power transport and domestic appliances, to warm and cool homes, for many forms of manufacturing, light settlements, communications, and commercial agriculture.

Show question

Question

Why is energy dependency an important factor to think about when it comes to energy security?


Show answer

Answer

Because the more a country relies on importing energy thus being energy-dependent, the more it's at risk of economic and geopolitical difficulties.

Show question

Question

What are the four important aspects of energy security?


Show answer

Answer

Availability, accessibility, affordability, and reliability.

Show question

Question

What is Norway's strategy regarding energy security? 


Show answer

Answer

Norway is 96% self-reliant when it comes to energy as it uses its own resources to try to secure self-sufficiency. It has achieved this by exploiting its offshore oil and gas fields and using hydroelectric power. It even has surplus energy which it exports to other countries, such as the UK through an undersea gas pipeline.

Show question

Question

Give an example of two countries that have a reliable and consistent energy supplier nation as a strategy for energy security. How do they work together?


Show answer

Answer

USA and Canada have the largest integrated energy network in the world. Both co-supply each other with electricity in different regions. Canada is the net exporter of oil and gas to the USA whilst being the net importer of coal from the USA.

Show question

Question

What is Japan's strategy for energy security?


Show answer

Answer

Japan has more than five countries that supply it with liquid natural gas. This prevents it from being too dependent on one resource and makes it able to switch to an alternative resource if there are any political, price, or supply problems.

Show question

Question

How has the USA improved its energy security?


Show answer

Answer

The USA has drastically reduced oil and gas imports from the Middle East and South America by exploiting its own deep onshore shale gas through a process of hydraulic fracturing. They have switched their supplies to depend less on imports.

Show question

Question

How can nations reduce domestic demands for energy?


Show answer

Answer

Through subsidies for solar panels in houses and businesses, encouraging cycling instead of driving, and insulating houses in a more efficient manner.

Show question

Question

What causes energy security?


Show answer

Answer

A constant and reliable source of energy is vital for energy security.

Show question

Question

What is the carbon cycle, and why is it important?

Show answer

Answer

The carbon cycle is the movement of carbon between the different reservoirs on the earth. It is important for planetary health as the balance of the carbon cycle can affect the climate.

Show question

60%

of the users don't pass the Geography quiz! Will you pass the quiz?

Start Quiz

Discover the right content for your subjects

No need to cheat if you have everything you need to succeed! Packed into one app!

Study Plan

Be perfectly prepared on time with an individual plan.

Quizzes

Test your knowledge with gamified quizzes.

Flashcards

Create and find flashcards in record time.

Notes

Create beautiful notes faster than ever before.

Study Sets

Have all your study materials in one place.

Documents

Upload unlimited documents and save them online.

Study Analytics

Identify your study strength and weaknesses.

Weekly Goals

Set individual study goals and earn points reaching them.

Smart Reminders

Stop procrastinating with our study reminders.

Rewards

Earn points, unlock badges and level up while studying.

Magic Marker

Create flashcards in notes completely automatically.

Smart Formatting

Create the most beautiful study materials using our templates.

Sign up to highlight and take notes. It’s 100% free.