Dive deep into the diverse world of Glomeromycota, a fascinating group of fungi that play crucial roles in various ecosystems. This comprehensive guide will equip you with a thorough understanding of Glomeromycota, from outlining its definition, significance in ecology, key characteristics and classification systems, to exploring the various habitats and reproduction processes it exhibits. Moreover, unique species and real-world examples of Glomeromycota will be presented to further your comprehension. Embark on this enlightening journey through the microscopic kingdom of Glomeromycota, uncovering the complexity and diversity of this microscopic life form.

Get started Sign up for free
Glomeromycota Glomeromycota

Create learning materials about Glomeromycota with our free learning app!

  • Instand access to millions of learning materials
  • Flashcards, notes, mock-exams and more
  • Everything you need to ace your exams
Create a free account

Millions of flashcards designed to help you ace your studies

Sign up for free

Convert documents into flashcards for free with AI!

Table of contents

    Understanding Glomeromycota

    In the captivating world of microbiology, the phylum Glomeromycota holds a significant place. These fascinating fungi form an essential part of the soil ecosystem, contributing brilliantly to nutrient cycling and plant health.

    Outline: Definition and Overview of Glomeromycota

    Glomeromycota represents a phylum within the kingdom Fungi. They're commonly referred to as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi due to their fundamental symbiotic interactions with plants.

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are a type of fungi that penetrate the root cells of vascular plants, forming a beneficial symbiotic relationship.

    Let's make this concept more industrious:

    Kingdom Fungi
    Phylum Glomeromycota
    Common Name Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi
    Symbiotic Relationship Beneficial relationship with plants

    Glomeromycota fungi improves their host plants' nutrient uptake capacity by enhancing the root system's surface area. This vital function has a significant impact on plant reproduction, survival, and diversity in various ecosystems.

    The Basic Functions and Role of Glomeromycota

    Glomeromycota play a two-fold role: they boost the plants' nutrient absorption and improve soil structure by forming a mycelial network.

    Here is an illustrative example considering a plant in need of phosphorus:

    The roots of a plant struggle to absorb phosphorus. When Glomeromycota fungi infiltrate the plant's roots, they form arbuscular structures and act like an extension to the root system. This extra root area allows the plant to absorb adequate phosphorus from a larger soil volume, thus leading to its healthier growth.

    Besides nutrient acquisition, Glomeromycota also has a significant role in soil aggregation. Their extensive mycelial networks link soil particles together, enhancing soil structure and fertility.

    Understanding the Importance of Glomeromycota in Ecosystems

    Glomeromycota has a pivotal role in maintaining stability in various ecosystems by enhancing plant health and soil productivity. Their contribution to nutrient cycling is crucial for biodiversity.

    Glomeromycota is present in around 80 per cent of plant species, indicating their symbiotic role across different ecosystems. By improving nutrient uptake in plants, and enhancing soil structure, these fungi play a significant part in ecosystem function, such as primary productivity and nutrient cycling. So, a decline in their population could have noteworthy consequences for ecosystem health.

    By understanding and appreciating these tiny but essential organisms, you can gain a better insight into the microscopic processes that underpin life on earth. Keep exploring the world of microbiology to unlock more secret heroes like Glomeromycota.

    Key Characteristics of Glomeromycota

    If you delve into the world of fungi, Glomeromycota makes for a standout group thanks to its unique characteristics. Ranging from how it interacts with host plants to its reproduction and survival strategies, every feature draws focus on how this fungi group adds value to our ecosystem.

    Highlighting the Unique Glomeromycota Characteristics

    When studying Glomeromycota, you'll come across several fascinating and unique traits. Here, let's dig into the five most essential Glomeromycota characteristics:

    • Absence of independent sexual reproduction
    • Formation of specialised hyphal structures
    • Symbiotic host interactions
    • Compound spores
    • Role in Phosphorus cycling

    Absence of independent sexual reproduction: Surprisingly, Glomeromycota lacks a traditional sexual reproduction system. Instead of producing sexual spores, they undergo vegetative reproduction, producing asexual spores.

    Formation of specialised hyphal structures: Glomeromycota forms specialised structures called arbuscules within the root cells of host plants. These arbuscules are intricately branched hyphae that greatly increase the surface area for nutrient exchange.

    Symbiotic host interactions: Glomeromycota forms mutual symbiotic relationships with a wide range of plant species. In exchange for carbon from the host plant, they contribute towards nutrient acquisition, particularly Phosphorus and Nitrogen.

    Compound spores: A key feature distinguishing Glomeromycota from many other fungi is their large, multi-nucleated spores. These compound spores contribute to its distinctive reproductive strategy.

    Role in Phosphorus cycling: Glomeromycota has an intricate role in Phosphorus cycling in ecosystems. By transferring Phosphorus from the soil to plants, these fungi actively participate in nutrient cycling processes.

    Identifying the Various Glomeromycota Characteristics Used in Classification

    Classification of Glomeromycota rests on a set of tangible physical characteristics. Chief among these characteristics are the morphology of its spores. Spore morphology includes attributes like size, colour, wall structure, and the nature of the subtending hypha – the hypha that gives rise to the spore.

    For instance, Glomeromycota's subclass, Glomeromycetes, is marked by the formation of large, often dyed spores with multiple spore wall layers, whereas the other subclass, Geosiphonates, forms smaller, colourless spores with simpler wall structures.

    Phylogenetic differences supported by genetic analysis also play a crucial part along with morphological features in Glomeromycota's classification process.

    How Glomeromycota Characteristics Aid in Its Survival and Reproduction

    Without out-and-out sexual reproduction abilities, you might wonder how Glomeromycota ensures its survival and propagation. Here's where the interesting features of Glomeromycota come into play.

    Foremost, the large, multinucleate spores of Glomeromycota contribute generously towards its survival. Being highly resistant, these spores can persist in the soil in the absence of a host for a long time.

    Further, thanks to Glomeromycota's mutualistic relationship with host plants, it gains access to essential nutrients and a protected environment that bolsters its survival. In turn, it also promotes plant survival by assisting in nutrient uptake.

    Lastly, its arbuscule formation is also a survival strategy. By increasing the surface area for nutrient exchange within the host's root cells, it secures a nutrient flow cementing its survival chances and supporting future proliferation.

    Therefore, even with its unconventional reproductive strategy, Glomeromycota's unique characteristics arm it with impressive survival and reproduction capacities.

    Classification Systems within Glomeromycota

    Just as humans need a systematic way of categorising and identifying multitudinous things, the vast world of fungi necessitates a robust classification system. Within the intriguing domain of Glomeromycota, unique classification systems have evolved over the years, synthesising multiple traits, observations and research findings. Here's an analysis of these taxonomy frameworks.

    Hierarchical Glomeromycota Classification: A Detailed Guide

    Looking at Glomeromycota's taxonomy will help you appreciate not just their diversity but also the intricacy of fungal classifications. Being part of the Kingdom Fungi, Glomeromycota belongs to the subkingdom Dikarya, subdivisions Glomeromycotina and Mucoromycotina. However, the hierarchy becomes far more complicated and specific as you delve deeper.

    Within Glomeromycotina, we have three orders - Diversisporales, Gigasporales, and Glomerales, each exhibiting distinct morphological and phylogenetic features. These orders branch out into distinct families, the last taxonomic rank where uniformity is observed across classification schemes. Further down, the classification sprouts out into multiple genera and species, the precise structuring of which remains under continuous debate and research.

    Your understanding of Glomeromycota classification will remain incomplete without acknowledging how its scientific names operate. Just like the binomial nomenclature system for plants and animals, each Glomeromycota species is designated by a two-part name where the first part designates the genus and the second corresponds to the species epithet.

    Now, let's explore what neo-taxonomists have done by delving into the complexity of Glomeromycota taxonomy and the evolution of classification systems.

    Understanding the Complexity of Glomeromycota Classification

    The tricky bit about Glomeromycota is that unlike several fungi, it doesn't undergo sexual reproduction, and hence, lacks a sexual stage (the teleomorph). This shortcoming significantly complicates their taxonomy because the classification of fungi is usually grounded on the morphologies of teleomorphic features. Overcoming this obstacle, scientists have had to base Glomeromycota's classification on its asexual stage (the anamorph).

    But, with time and newer molecular tools, classifications have started to factor in phylogenetic relationships represented by the branching pattern of evolutionary tree diagrams. For instance, the advent of DNA sequencing technology brought forth a genetic perspective to fungal classification. Scientists have also proactively combined both traditional morphological and modern phylogenetic methodologies for Glomeromycota taxonomy, bringing forth a better lens to view this complex world.

    Classifications also face the complex scenario of form taxon vs true taxon. Traditionally, when the sexual and asexual stages of a fungus didn't correlate, taxonomists treated them as distinct taxonomic entities, often leading to one fungus having two different names. Such form taxa showcase the complexity of fungal taxonomy, and this practice is not promoted today owing to better understanding and tools at disposal.

    An Examination of the Evolution of Glomeromycota Classification

    Changes in the classification reflect our evolving understanding of the complexities of Glomeromycota life. Earlier taxonomists heavily relied on morphological features, like spore characteristics. However, the classification evolved with technological advances and the infusion of molecular data into taxonomy.

    Traditionally, morphological keys were compiled based on visible features observed under a microscope such as forms and sizes of spores, hyphae, arbuscules etc. The classification of Glomeromycota was based on this system up until recently. This involved observing and categorising different structures like auxiliary cells, spore wall layers, subtending hypha, etc.

    However, since the late 20th century, the use of molecular tools for phylogenetic analysis revolutionised the way we understand and classify Glomeromycota. Researchers could confirm some early morphological classifications using genetic data, enhancing its validity, while others were debunked, leading to extensive rearrangements within the taxonomy due to discovered cryptic species and misclassifications.

    The introduction of high-throughput sequencing technologies allowed us to see classification in a new light. The ability to generate large volumes of sequence data, combined with bioinformatics analyses, provided unprecedented insights into the genetic diversity and relationships within Glomeromycota.

    Today, a modern classification of Glomeromycota would integrate both morphological and molecular data for complete and in-depth insights. It provides a holistic perspective, blending traditional approaches with modern scientific tools.

    Habitats of Glomeromycota

    Shining a spotlight on the habitats of Glomeromycota helps you understand where these fascinating organisms thrive. Predominantly, Glomeromycota is renowned for its obligate symbiotic relationship with the roots of the vast majority of land plants, making its most common and native habitat the world's diverse soil environments. Moreover, this soil-based relationship extends across ecosystems, whether arid, aquatic, alpine, or tropical.

    Exploring Various Glomeromycota Habitats

    Peeling back the layers of Glomeromycota's habitats, we see complex, symbiotic relationships unfold in the world's soils. This association, called arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, binds Glomeromycota strongly with the realm of soils. However, AM symbiosis isn't the same everywhere but varies significantly depending on climate, soil type, nutrient availability, and associated plant community.

    Habitat Type Associated Conditions
    Desert Soils Extreme temperatures, minimal rainfall
    Agrarian Soils Wide-ranging according to crop preference
    Aquatic Soils Seasonal water-logging, salinity
    Tropical Forest Soils High rainfall, temperature, organic matter

    Moreover, Glomeromycota thrives under the surface of the earth in more than just soil. Different species have been discovered in marine sediments, fractures of deep granite, and even in the lungs of healthy people and animals, indicating that our understanding of Glomeromycota habitats is just the tip of the iceberg.

    These habitat distinctions provide a framework to appreciate the extensive adaptability of Glomeromycota and its role in maintaining ecosystem health while bearing the brunt of environmental changes.

    How Habitat Affects The Survival of Different Glomeromycota Species

    Recognising the close bond between Glomeromycota and its host plants, it becomes clear that the habitat directly influences the fungi's survival and propagation. Certain plant species, soil types, levels of moisture or salinity can favour specific Glomeromycota species, leading to a diverse species distribution across the globe.

    Consider, for example, the agricultural soils rich in phosphorus applied as fertiliser. Such soils discourage the formation of mycorrhizae due to a reduced need for nutrient absorption assistance. Consequently, these soils witness a decline in Glomeromycota diversity. Alternatively, phosphorus-poor soils might be home to Glomeromycota species specialising in phosphorus solubilisation and uptake.

    Similarly, plants in salt-affected soils may come to rely more on Glomeromycota for enhancing their salt tolerance, making the area a unique niche for salt-tolerant Glomeromycota species.

    Such examples illustrate how varying habitat conditions drive the evolution of new species and select the survival of certain others, leading to a geographically influenced diversity of Glomeromycota.

    Influence of Glomeromycota Habitat on Its Characteristics

    While habitat determines which Glomeromycota species survive, it also influences the inherent features of these fungi. The changes that a challenging habitat triggers can be viewed as tactical defenses or adaptations that these organisms develop for survival.

    Aquatic Glomeromycota species, for instance, might evolve mechanisms to survive under conditions of low oxygen, high salinity, or seasonal water-logging, reflecting in their gene expressions, morphologies, or life cycles.

    Similarly, in their quest for survival, Glomeromycota in desert soils might lean towards increased spore production and dormancy periods that can survive strenuous conditions and germinate when favourable situations arise.

    Moreover, symbioses with plants subject to continuous agricultural practices might impact Glomeromycota's mycorrhizal efficiency, resistance, and recovery following disturbance. Some Glomeromycota might even evolve to exploit the applied fertilisers, leading to shifts in their nutrient assimilation strategies.

    Thus, the surrounding habitat indirectly sculpts key features of Glomeromycota like stress tolerance, spore formation and dormancy, and nutrient exchange mechanisms.

    The Reproduction Process of Glomeromycota

    As with other fungi, in order to comprehend Glomeromycota, you need to delve into their unique reproduction process. This becomes particularly intriguing given Glomeromycota don't follow traditional sexual or even asexual reproduction pathways. Instead, you'll discover strategies such as the formation of spores and expansion of mycelial networks inform the reproduction process and influence their capability to form symbiotic relationships with host plants.

    An In-depth Look into Glomeromycota Reproduction

    The world of Glomeromycota reproduction is fascinating, consisting mainly of two strategies: the expansion of network-like mycelium and the formation of thick-walled, resilient spores.

    Mycelium expansion is perhaps the most straightforward. It's essentially the extension of the hyphal network, branching out to cover a larger soil volume and reaching out to more plant roots. Then, the fungus penetrates the host's root cells, forming unique structures called arbuscules. These arbuscules provide the main site for nutrient exchange between the host plant and Glomeromycota, reflecting a symbiotic relationship.

    An arbuscule is an intricately branched hyphae structure typical of AM symbiosis and forms the main nutrient exchange interface with host plants.

    Spore production, on the other hand, seems simple but hides remarkable complexity. Spores are essentially fungal reproductive units and serve as the dispersal and survival strategy for Glomeromycota. They are spawned from hyphal tips, developing into multi-layered structures via a multi-step process.

    A closer examination reveals three main types of propagules (reproductive structures) produced by Glomeromycota: Auxiliary cells, chlamydospores and bulbils. Your comprehension of Glomeromycota reproduction wouldn't be complete unless you appreciate the roles of these three propagules. Let's delve deeper into their fascinating evolution.

    The Different Stages Involved in Glomeromycota Reproduction

    Intricate and vital, the reproduction of Glomeromycota can be broken down into different stages. Let's closely scrutinise the spore formation process, ranging from the initial growth of hyphal tips to the formation of mature spores.

    • Initial stage: A specialised hyphal cell undergoes repeated divisions, resulting in a compact cluster of cells.
    • Early stage: The cell cluster swells, and the outer cells start to form the outer spore wall. This maturing spore is supplied with nutrients from the parent mycelium via a stalk-like Subtending hypha.
    • Intermediate stage: Inner cells begin to differentiate and develop into the inner spore wall, while the subtending hypha becomes more distinct.
    • Late stage: As the outer and inner spore walls continue to mature, spore content, i.e., cytoplasm and nuclei, get sequestered. The spore is finally cut-off from the parent mycelium, leaving behind a sealed spore.

    The stages mentioned above beautifully encapsulate how the inherent survival strategy of Glomeromycota takes shape. The giving rise to mature spores capable of germinating into a new mycelium and initiating another symbiotic relationship is truly fascinating.

    How Reproduction Impact Glomeromycota Characteristics and Classification

    Deciphering how Glomeromycota's reproduction process exerts its influence on their novel characteristics and classification presents a dynamic, ever-evolving puzzle. The reproductive traits significantly contribute to their capability to establish AM symbiosis, succeed in diverse habitats, and survive through challenging conditions.

    For instance, the formation of arbuscules undoubtedly stands out as a characteristic trait of Glomeromycota, and these unique structures inherently allow nutrient exchange between them and the host plants. Thus, altering their nutritional capabilities and survivability in nutrient-poor soils.

    Spore formation, on the other hand, directly impacts Glomeromycota's ability to disperse, colonise new territories, and survive through unfavourable conditions. Features like spore size, wall thickness, and dormancy period have facilitated Glomeromycota's spread across diverse habitats worldwide and bear a significant influence on their classification.

    For example, features like spore wall layering, the arrangement of subtending hypha, and the presence of auxiliary cells have traditionally served as key taxonomic criteria. But it's important to understand that these features are essentially a representation of the Glomeromycota's reproductive strategies and adaptation to their habitat.

    Thus, the impact of Glomeromycota's reproduction strategy is far-reaching, and a good grasp of these nuances can help demystify the complexities of this intriguing fungal group.

    Examining Glomeromycota Species and Examples

    Glomeromycota boasts a diversity that carpet nearly every corner of the globe, featuring intriguing characteristics and unexpected tenacity. To give you a detailed perspective, let's delve into some of the famous Glomeromycota species and real-life examples that epitomise this fungal group's adaptations and functional capabilities.

    A Categorical Look at Different Glomeromycota Species

    To truly understand Glomeromycota, one must recognise the extensive species diversity within this fungal phylum. Traditionally, Glomeromycota was classified into a single fungal family, Glomeraceae. However, as further research unravelled the genetic and phenotypic complexities of this group, other researchers proposed a more comprehensive taxonomy encompassing four orders, namely Glomerales, Diversisporales, Gigasporales, and Archaeosporales.

    Under these broad orders, numerous families, genera, and species have been identified. Here, we'll focus on some well-studied families like Glomeraceae and Gigasporaceae, and their notable species.

    Glomeraceae: It includes several genera like Glomus and Rhizophagus. Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae remain the most extensively studied species, known for their broad host range and adaptability to varying soil conditions.

    Gigasporaceae: This family is famous for large spores, often visible to the naked eye. Genera include Scutellospora and Gigaspora, with Gigaspora margarita being a well-researched species known for its large spores and inability to grow without a host plant.

    Following is a summary table providing a clear comparison of the two families mentioned above:

    Family Genera Known Species
    Glomeraceae Glomus, Rhizophagus Glomus mosseae, Rhizophagus irregularis
    Gigasporaceae Gigaspora, Scutellospora Gigaspora margarita

    It's imperative to note that these are just two examples from the vast and diverse world of Glomeromycota species. The phylum also includes species with unique habitats like desert-inhabiting Cetraspora and aquatic-inhabiting Paraglomus, reflecting a remarkable adaptation to diverse ecosystems.

    Providing Real-life Glomeromycota Examples for Better Comprehension

    While the categorical look provides an overview, real-life examples lend a practical understanding of Glomeromycota species. Let's start with Glomus intraradices, a specialist in colonising indoor plants and agriculturally important crops like maize and soybean to establish AM symbiosis. It not only enhances the host's nutrient absorption but also improves the plant's resistance to diseases.

    Another common example is Gigaspora margarita, a large-spored Glomeromycota species, known for its inability to grow without a host plant. It forms symbioses primarily with herbaceous plants, helping them flourish in phosphorous-deficient soils by providing diligent uptake of inaccessible phosphate compounds.

    Rhizophagus irregularis, previously known as Glomus intraradices, is another ubiquitous species frequently found in agricultural soils where its association with crops results in improved yield. It is often used in commercial mycorrhizal inoculants due to its broad host range and ease of cultivation.

    These real-case scenarios of Glomeromycota species establish the practical importance of these fungi in agriculture, forestry and ecosystem conservation.

    Comparing and Contrasting Different Glomeromycota Species and Examples

    Moving from the individual species, let's juxtapose the mentioned Glomeromycota examples to discern their similarities and differences.

    Glomus intraradices and Rhizophagus irregularis, the same species under different names, have their distinctions rooted in nomenclature, as Rhizophagus is a relatively new genus unveiled from within Glomus. While Glomus intraradices is known for its presence in agricultural soils and association with various plants, Gigaspora margarita is renowned for its large spore sizes and specificity for herbaceous hosts.

    Zooming out, the Glomeraceae family itself emphasises smaller spores and broad host range, while Gigasporaceae features large spores that often have intricate ornamentation. Moreover, the dependence on host-plant varies among families, with Glomeraceae species generally being more flexible with host requirements than Gigasporaceae.

    Here's a table for quick comparison:

    Characteristic Glomeraceae (Glomus intraradices) Gigasporaceae (Gigaspora margarita)
    Spore Size Small to medium Large
    Host Range Broad Mostly herbaceous plants
    Dependence on Host Flexible Strict

    In conclusion, the world of Glomeromycota is brimming with diversity, dynamism, and depth. By understanding the species and their real-life examples, you can begin to appreciate this remarkable group of fungi, their ecological roles and their intricate adaptability to varied habitats.

    Glomeromycota - Key takeaways

    • Glomeromycota is a group of fungi which are characterized by their large, multinucleate spores and their mutualistic relationship with host plants which allow nutrient exchange, contributing to both plant and fungi survival.
    • The hierarchical classification of Glomeromycota includes the subkingdom Dikarya and subdivisions Glomeromycotina and Mucoromycotina. Within these are three orders - Diversisporales, Gigasporales, and Glomerales, each with distinct morphological and phylogenetic features.
    • Glomeromycota does not undergo sexual reproduction and consequently, its classification is based on asexual stages and characteristics. This, combined with new molecular tools and DNA sequencing technology, has helped to develop a comprehensive categorization of Glomeromycota.
    • Glomeromycota predominantly lives in an obligate symbiotic relationship with the roots of the vast majority of land plants, residing in a wide variety of ecosystems. It can also be found in other environments such as marine sediments, fractures of deep granite, and even in the lungs of healthy people and animals.
    • Glomeromycota reproduces through the expansion of network-like mycelium and the formation of resilient spores. Propagules, or reproductive structures, include Auxiliary cells, chlamydospores, and bulbils, which all contribute to the spreading of this fungal group.
    Glomeromycota Glomeromycota
    Learn with 12 Glomeromycota flashcards in the free StudySmarter app

    We have 14,000 flashcards about Dynamic Landscapes.

    Sign up with Email

    Already have an account? Log in

    Frequently Asked Questions about Glomeromycota
    What is an example of Glomeromycota? Please write in UK English.
    One common example of Glomeromycota is the Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), specifically species in the Rhizophagus genus. These fungi form mutualistic relationships with the roots of many plants, assisting in nutrient uptake.
    What is Glomeromycota?
    Glomeromycota is a phylum of fungi, known for their symbiotic relationships with plants. Through a process called mycorrhizal association, they aid in nutrient transport, enhancing the plant's ability to thrive in various soil conditions.
    What is the habitat of Glomeromycota?
    Glomeromycota are primarily terrestrial and are found in various environments including grasslands, deserts, agricultural fields, and forests. They form mutualistic relationships with plant roots, helping them absorb nutrients from the soil.
    What are the characteristics of Glomeromycota?
    Glomeromycota are a group of fungi forming obligate symbiotic relationships with plants, known as arbuscular mycorrhizas. They have coenocytic mycelium, produce spores for reproduction, lack a sexual cycle, and are incapable of surviving without a host plant.
    What is Glomeromycota used for?
    Glomeromycota, a group of fungi, is primarily used in agriculture and horticulture due to its symbiotic relationships with plants. It helps boost plant growth by improving nutrient uptake, particularly phosphorus, and providing increased resistance to certain pathogens.

    Test your knowledge with multiple choice flashcards

    What are some of the significant characteristics and examples of the Glomeraceae family in the Glomeromycota phylum?

    What are significant characteristics and examples of the Gigasporaceae family within the Glomeromycota phylum?

    What is the primary role of Glomeromycota in the ecosystem?


    Discover learning materials with the free StudySmarter app

    Sign up for free
    About StudySmarter

    StudySmarter is a globally recognized educational technology company, offering a holistic learning platform designed for students of all ages and educational levels. Our platform provides learning support for a wide range of subjects, including STEM, Social Sciences, and Languages and also helps students to successfully master various tests and exams worldwide, such as GCSE, A Level, SAT, ACT, Abitur, and more. We offer an extensive library of learning materials, including interactive flashcards, comprehensive textbook solutions, and detailed explanations. The cutting-edge technology and tools we provide help students create their own learning materials. StudySmarter’s content is not only expert-verified but also regularly updated to ensure accuracy and relevance.

    Learn more
    StudySmarter Editorial Team

    Team Biology Teachers

    • 20 minutes reading time
    • Checked by StudySmarter Editorial Team
    Save Explanation Save Explanation

    Study anywhere. Anytime.Across all devices.

    Sign-up for free

    Sign up to highlight and take notes. It’s 100% free.

    Join over 22 million students in learning with our StudySmarter App

    The first learning app that truly has everything you need to ace your exams in one place

    • Flashcards & Quizzes
    • AI Study Assistant
    • Study Planner
    • Mock-Exams
    • Smart Note-Taking
    Join over 22 million students in learning with our StudySmarter App
    Sign up with Email

    Get unlimited access with a free StudySmarter account.

    • Instant access to millions of learning materials.
    • Flashcards, notes, mock-exams, AI tools and more.
    • Everything you need to ace your exams.
    Second Popup Banner