## Understanding Quantum Computer

You're about to embark on a journey to learn about an exciting, emerging technology in the field of computer science; the Quantum Computer. A blend of computer science and quantum physics, this technology promises to revolutionise processing power and data handling, unlike anything we've seen before.

### Quantum Computing: A Simplified Explanation

At its core, Quantum Computing is a new type of computation that harnesses the power of atoms and molecules to perform memory and processing tasks. It's a potentially game-changing advancement offering significant improvements in processing speed compared to classical computers.

**Quantum Computing** involves principles of quantum mechanics to process information. In contrast to classical computers that use bits (0s and 1s) as their smallest unit of information, quantum computers use quantum bits, or qubits, which can be both 0 and 1 at the same time, thanks to a property known as superposition.

Moreover, qubits can also influence one another instantly regardless of the distance between them due to a principle called entanglement. These properties give quantum computers their superior processing capabilities.

#### The Science Behind Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing marries two of the greatest scientific advancements of the 20th century: Computer Science and Quantum Physics. Let's deep-dive into some of the essential concepts:

**Superposition:**This concept allows a quantum system to exist in multiple states simultaneously.**Entanglement:**Two or more particles can be directly linked, and the state of one instantly influences the other, no matter how far apart they are.**Quantum interference:**Just like waves in the sea, quantum states can interfere with each other. This property is used in executing quantum algorithms.

#### Practical Examples of Quantum Computing

Several industries stand to benefit from the application of Quantum Computing. Below are a few practical examples:

**Drug Discovery:**Quantum computers could significantly speed up the process of drug discovery by simulating the behaviour of matter down to the molecular level.**Financial Modeling:**Complex financial systems could be modelled more accurately with quantum algorithms.**Artificial Intelligence:**Training complex Machine Learning models could be significantly sped up using Quantum Computers.

### Deep Dive Into Quantum Computer

A quantum computer maintains a sequence of qubits. A 'quantum gate' alters the state of a qubit. However, unlike classical computing, where the operations are deterministic, and always yield a specific outcome, the results of Quantum logic gate operations are probabilistic.

#### How Does a Quantum Computer Work?

In a traditional computer, bits carry out operations using logic gates, which handle and process data. Similarly, qubits in a quantum computer interact through quantum gates. Here are the key point:

- Qubits are made to interact in a controlled manner through quantum gates
- By adjusting the various parameters of those gates, a quantum algorithm can be implemented
- Measuring the qubits causes their superposition to collapse to either 0 or 1, providing the output of the algorithm

#### The Progress and Evolution of Quantum Computers

Quantum Computing has experienced rapid progress over the last few decades. Evolving from theoretical constructs to physical models, many significant milestones have been reached, bringing us several steps closer to fully operational Quantum Computers.

1980 - 1990 | Early Conceptualisation |

1994 | Shor’s algorithm for factorisation |

1996 | Breakthrough in Quantum Error Correction |

2011 | D-Wave systems launches 128-qubit Quantum Computer |

2019 | Google claims Quantum Supremacy |

Google's claim to Quantum Supremacy was a significant milestone, where their Quantum Computer performed a task in just 200 seconds, which they claimed would take the world's best supercomputer 10,000 years to complete.

In conclusion, Quantum Computers hold immense potential, capable of solving complex problems that are currently impossible for traditional computing systems. However, there is still a long way to go before this technology becomes commonplace.

## Google Quantum Computer Versus IBM Quantum Computer

Google and IBM are two tech giants who have turned their gaze towards the immense potential of Quantum Computing. Both are emerging as pioneers in this novel field, investing substantially in research and development towards the attainment of quantum supremacy. While they share a common goal, their approaches and progress showcase unique aspects of their journey in quantum computing.

### Insight Into Google's Quantum Computer

Google's quantum computing project, known as Quantum AI, aims to build a quantum computer that can outperform any classical computer for a broad set of problems, a theoretical event known as Quantum Supremacy. Their research initially pivoted around the D-Wave quantum computer, but they later announced their own quantum processor.

**Quantum AI** is a Google initiative that aims to build a useful quantum computer that can tackle problems intractable by classical computing.

The "Sycamore" processor, Google's pride in quantum computing, boasts 54-qubits. Interestingly, one of these qubits was purposely made non-operational to provide higher levels of stability and scalability. Nevertheless, it was with this 53-qubit quantum computer that Google claimed 'Quantum Supremacy' in 2019. They announced that their quantum computer had taken just 200 seconds to perform a task that would have taken the world's fastest supercomputer approximately 10,000 years.

Google bases quantum computing architecture on superconducting circuits, leveraging on the idea of manipulating the quantum states of circulating currents. Quantum AI utilises the circuit-based model to perform operations which are then controlled by external hardware. A critical aspect of Google's Quantum AI is the focus on quantum error correction and quantum supremacy.

### IBM's Journey with Quantum Computing

IBM has had a longstanding involvement in quantum computing, dating back to the first theoretical constructs. Their journey began in the 1980s, pioneering research and improvements towards quantum hardware. One of IBM's significant achievements was the introduction of the Quantum Experience in 2016 – a cloud-based platform where students, researchers, and general optimists could run experiments on IBM's quantum processor.

2016 | Introduction of 5-qubit quantum computer |

2017 | Introduction of 20-qubit quantum computer |

2019 | Introduction of 53-qubit quantum computer |

2021 | Announcement of the roadmap for 433-qubit quantum computer in 2022 |

Unlike Google, who utilise superconducting circuits, IBM uses a different type of technologic approach – superconducting qubits. This technique enables IBM to encourage third parties to develop and run software on their hardware.

#### Comparing Google and IBM's Quantum Computers

**Quantum Volume**, a metric introduced by IBM, measures the computational ability of a quantum computer while considering both the number of qubits and the complexity of quantum operations that can be performed.

IBM continually aims to double its quantum volume every year. While, Google focuses less on this quantum volume and more on reaching 'quantum advantage', where certain tasks can be completed faster on a quantum computer than on a classical one.

Google's 'Sycamore' as well as IBM's quantum computers both have 53-qubits. However, their architecture and the roadmap for the future showcase their unique offerings and vision. IBM has a well-defined roadmap and plans to roll out a 1000-qubit quantum computer by 2023. Meanwhile, Google's timeline for achieving a fully error-corrected, useful quantum computer is not publicly defined.

However, it's pertinent to clarify that while the focus is usually on increasing the number of qubits, the 'quality' of qubits plays an equally important role in the computational power of a quantum computer. Both IBM and Google are actively involved in research to enhance qubit fidelity, reduce error, and improve stability.

Google Quantum Computer IBM Quantum Computer Superconducting Circuits Architecture Superconducting Qubits Architecture 53 Qubits 53 Qubits No defined Roadmap Defined Roadmap until 2023 Claimed Quantum Supremacy Detailed Quantum Volume

## Techniques of Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing is a complex interdisciplinary field, intertwining aspects from computer science, physics, and mathematics. It leverages phenomena from quantum mechanics to process information in a way that classical computers cannot match. Various techniques in quantum computing have made these advances possible. Some are more established, while others represent exciting new innovations in this fast-paced field.

### Primary Techniques Involved in Quantum Computing

In quantum computing, the primary methods of processing and manipulating information stem from the principles of quantum mechanics itself. Quantum principles like superposition, entanglement, and quantum interference serve as fundamental tools to realise quantum computing concepts.

**Superposition:** Superposition refers to a quantum system's ability to exist in multiple states simultaneously. Instead of traditional bits, which exist as either a 0 or a 1, a quantum bit, or qubit, can be in a state that is a combination of both 0 and 1. This trait allows for a huge number of potential combinations, dramatically increasing the processing power of quantum computers.

**Entanglement:** Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon where two qubits become intrinsically linked, and the state of one instantaneously influences the state of the other, no matter the distance separating them. This allows for complex computational manipulations to be executed, which drastically improves computation speed and efficiency.

**Quantum Interference:** Quantum states, like waves, can also interfere with each other. When waves meet, they can either add up (constructive interference) or cancel each other out (destructive interference). Such interference is utilised in the processing of quantum algorithms.

Besides these fundamental principles, a magic box of quantum gates is used to perform operations on qubits. These gates, analogous to logic gates for classical bits, manipulate the state of the qubits by applying linear transformations. Considering the probabilistic nature of outcomes in quantum computing, specific techniques such as quantum error correction and quantum fault tolerance are also crucial to ensure the reliable performance of the quantum computer.

#### Innovative Techniques in Quantum Computing

Scientists and researchers continually strive to develop innovative techniques to overcome many of the hurdles and challenges posed by quantum computing. These pioneering advancements are required to improve system stability, scalability, and computational speed.

**Topological Quantum Computing:**This technique attempts to keep the quantum information safe by storing it in a topologically protected state. The principle of this approach is based on braiding operations on anyons, quasiparticles used as quantum bits in a 2D quantum computer.**Quantum Annealing:**This technique represents a metaheuristic for finding the global minimum of a given objective function over a given set of candidate solutions. Quantum Annealing, along with other quantum optimisation algorithms, has shown promise in solving complex optimisation problems efficiently.**Photonic Quantum Computing:**Photons, or light particles with quantum properties, offer an interesting platform for quantum computing. Recent advancements have shown promising results in manipulating photons in on-chip waveguides and other photonic devices to execute quantum algorithms."

### Examples of Quantum Computing Techniques

Below are some concrete examples of how techniques in Quantum Computing can be employed in practice. They illuminate the possible applications and potentials of different quantum computing techniques.

**Shor's Algorithm:**Shor's algorithm, developed by mathematician Peter Shor, shows how quantum computers could crack RSA encryption, a common method for secure data transmission. This algorithm uses principles of superposition and entanglement to find the prime factors of an integer, a problem that's extremely difficult for classical computers.**Grover's Algorithm:**This quantum algorithm is often cited for its ability to solve unstructured search problems faster than any known algorithm using classical computers. Leveraging on principles of superposition and quantum interference, Grover's algorithm can significantly accelerate database searching processes.**Quantum Simulation:**Quantum simulation is one of the most promising applications of quantum computers. Quantum systems can be quantum mechanically simulated using a quantum computer in ways that are infeasible on classical machines. This technique can prove disruptive in fields like material science and pharmaceutical drug discovery.

Exploring these and other techniques provides an insight into the capabilities of quantum computing and its potential to revolutionise the world of information processing.

## Practical Quantum Computing Examples

Quantum Computing, though in its nascent stages, has already started to show potential in impacting and revolutionising various fields. These range from cryptography and climate modelling to material science and medicine. As a student of computer science, delving into the practical real-world uses of quantum computing not only widens your scope of knowledge but also gives you a glimpse into the promising future of this technology.

### Real-World Utilisation of Quantum Computing

While the universe of quantum computing is quite complex, its real-world applications simplify this sophistication by aligning it with tangible outcomes in various domains. Scientists and researchers across various disciplines are experimenting with quantum computing to address problems that are currently unattainable for classical computers. The fields that can benefit are vast, including cryptography, financial services, artificial intelligence, medicine, climate science and more.

**Cryptography:**Quantum computers hold the potential to break many currently used encryption techniques, necessitating the development of new cryptographic strategies. Simultaneously, quantum cryptography could offer unprecedented security measures.**Financial Services:**By handling vast requirements of data and complicated financial models, quantum computers could bring revolutionary changes in risk analysis, investments, and pricing models.**Artificial Intelligence:**The dramatic speed-up provided by quantum computers could enhance machine learning algorithms, thus fueling advances in AI.**Medicine:**Quantum computing could aid in drug discovery by simulating the molecular structure of potential drugs. It also holds promise for improving medical imaging and DNA analysis.**Climate Science:**Quantum computers could assist in accurate climate predictions by simulating large climate models, which are currently a challenge for classical computers.

#### Quantum Computing in Cryptography: An Example

Quantum computing's influence on cryptography is two-fold; it threatens current encryption methods while simultaneously promising ultra-secure cryptographic systems. To better understand this, we must first delve into a cryptography cornerstone: the RSA encryption system.

**RSA encryption** is a widely used public-key encryption technology. In RSA, the security of encrypted data is founded upon the assumed difficulty of factoring large composite numbers into their primes.

With current classical computing methods, factoring a large composite number is, for all practical purposes, infeasible due to the substantial timescales involved. This presumed difficulty forms the security bedrock of RSA encryption.

However, Shor's algorithm, when run on a sufficiently powerful quantum computer, could factor these large numbers exponentially faster than any known algorithm on classical computers, thereby breaking the security of RSA encryption.

**Shor's algorithm** is a quantum algorithm that factors integers in polynomial time, as opposed to the best-known classical algorithm’s sub-exponential time. This means that using Shor’s algorithm, a quantum computer could feasibly decrypt many of the cryptographic systems currently in use.

On the flip side, quantum computers also bless cryptography with the possibility of 'Quantum Key Distribution' (QKD). QKD harnesses quantum mechanics' unique properties to establish secure keys for cryptographic purposes and stands as a potentially unbreakable encryption scheme.

#### Role of Quantum Computing in Climate Modelling: An Example

The monumental challenge of accurately predicting weather forecasts and climate change is well-known. The complexity of these forecasting models grows with increased precision, leading to problems that are simply unmanageable for classical computers. This is where quantum computers could make a significant difference.

Quantum computers, due to their inherent strengths in handling vast data and complex calculations, are better equipped to model such intricate systems, thus yielding more accurate and timely predictions.

**Climate Models** are mathematical representations of the interaction between various components of the earth's climate system, including atmosphere, oceans, land surfaces, and ice masses. Accurate climate models require the simultaneous computation of a vast amount of variables, which exponentially increases the computational complexity.

Quantum algorithms could simulate large-scale, sophisticated models of Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and biological systems more efficiently than any classical computer. These models, which account for the numerous variables in the climate system, hold the promise to shed new light on climate change solutions by providing detailed global and regional projections.

For instance, accurate predictions on global warming and weather systems could provide policymakers and environmental scientists with imperative data to device strategic climate change mitigation and adaptation plans.

In sum, the potential of quantum computing in the real-world scenarios is immense. These examples of cryptography and climate modelling only represent a fraction of the spectrum of problems that quantum computers could potentially solve in the future. As advancements in quantum technology accelerate, the potential applications could permeate virtually every field of human endeavour.

## Quantum Computer - Key takeaways

- Qubits interact in a quantum computer through quantum gates, adjusting these gates can implement a quantum algorithm.
- Quantum computing has evolved from theoretical constructs to physical models.
- Google's Quantum Supremacy claim was a significant milestone where their quantum computer performed a task in 200 seconds, which they claimed would take a supercomputer 10,000 years.
- Google and IBM are leading in research and development of quantum computing, with different approaches and progress.
- "Quantum AI", a Google initiative, aims to build a useful quantum computer that can solve problems unable to be solved by classical computing.
- IBM and Google are both aiming to enhance qubit fidelity, reduce error, and improve stability in quantum computing.
- Quantum Computing utilizes principles like superposition, entanglement, and quantum interference.
- Innovative techniques in Quantum Computing involves Topological Quantum Computing, Quantum Annealing, and Photonic Quantum Computing.
- Examples of Quantum Computing Techniques include Shor's Algorithm, Grover's Algorithm and Quantum Simulation.
- Real-world utilization of Quantum Computing includes applications in cryptography, financial services, artificial intelligence, medicine, and climate science.

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