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Michel Foucault's theories and research into language, power, and social control is some of the most influential of our time. Foucault's discourse theory encourages us to question what is 'true' and to ask who in society benefits. This is on'e of Foucault's main arguments: everything is an exercise in power, and there is always somebody who benefits.
This article will provide a summary of some of Foucault's most influential thoughts and introduce you to:
You have probably heard the term discourse before, but what does it actually mean? In everyday life, discourse refers to any written or spoken text. However, for theorists, it usually means a little more than that.
When discussing Foucault and his discourse theory, the term refers to the use of communication (written or spoken) to construct knowledge and truth. Foucault suggests that the ‘truths’ that shape our lives don’t simply ‘exist’ but are created through discourse.
It’s important to note that not all theorists agree with this line of thinking. It’s pretty radical to believe there are no absolute truths!
As you can probably imagine, there are thousands of examples of discourse. Here is a short list just to give you an idea.
A professor talking to their class
A newspaper headline or report
A presidential speech
A magazine cover
Friends having a conversation
Discourse theory examines how people express themselves through language and suggests that the structures of power shape how people communicate in society.
Individuals all draw from a shared ‘pool of knowledge’ when communicating. This knowledge pool is typically accepted by the wider society and becomes further legitimised the more people use, share, and distribute it. Over time, this pool of knowledge slowly changes as people add to it and adapt it, meaning the things society deem to be ‘true’ can, and do, change over time.
In Scotland in the 16th and 17th centuries, around 3-4000 people (predominantly women) were executed for being ‘witches’. These so-called witches were typically quite poor, and therefore not powerful, and didn’t conform to society's ‘norms’. There was, of course, no proof that there ever were witches, but the idea that these people could be witches was spread by the more powerful members of society through 'discourse'. The accepted ‘pool of knowledge’ was that the ‘outsiders’ of society could be accused of witchcraft. Today, this is no longer the case, and our knowledge pool has changed considerably!
Discourse theory recognises that certain people, or groups of people, are in a position to influence the pool of knowledge far more easily than others. It is typically people in positions of perceived power who can change and influence what we believe to be ‘true’. The term perceived power has been used here because what is deemed ‘powerful’ can differ across cultures.
Factors that can affect a person’s perceived power include:
Socio-economic status (wealth and class)
Ethnicity and race
A white male doctor may have more influence than a black female nurse. This isn't necessarily because what he says is guaranteed to be more ‘true’, but because his occupation, gender, and race all play a role in giving him power, directly influencing how others perceive what he says.
Take a minute to reflect on why you think being a white male doctor gives someone more power in the UK. Do you think this is the same across the world? Do you think power relations are changing?
Michel Foucault (1926-1984) was a French philosopher, sociologist, and historian interested in the construction of knowledge and power through discourse. Foucault believed that discourse is created by those in power for specific reasons and is often used as a form of social control. He is typically associated with the structuralist and post-structuralist movements.
Foucault was critical of those in power, especially the French Bourgeoisie, and stated that those with power could create discourses for their own gain yet were able to conceal (hide) their intentions. I.e., Powerful people in society create knowledge that is eventually considered the norm, and others are unaware they’ve done so!
In this context, it might be helpful to think of discourse as a ‘narrative’. For example, UK tabloid newspapers built a narrative that refugees cost taxpayers lots of money. Who do you think benefits from this narrative?
Foucault was considered a structuralist as he examined the structures of knowledge (here, knowledge is regarded as the object of discourse). Later, he was considered a post-structuralist when he shifted his analysis to the subjects of discourse (the subjects are people!) and questioned how and why discourse could govern the way people think and behave.
Foucault didn’t believe there was just one form of power. Instead, he recognised several different types, they are:
Let’s look at each one in a bit more detail.
This is the form of power you are probably most familiar with. It is the power held by those in positions of authority, such as Queen Elizabeth II, the Prime Minister, or a headteacher.
Disciplinary power is related to Foucault’s theory of gaze - the idea that people will regulate their behaviour if they believe they’re being watched. This is the type of power we exercise over ourselves to fit the norm and be an ‘acceptable’ member of society. You could say it’s similar to self-restraint.
This term has religious roots but isn’t necessarily confined to religion. Pastoral power refers to acting in a certain way to ensure the safety and security of all. For example, it could be said that the police hold pastoral power as they exert power for the good of the wider community (although not all members of society would necessarily agree with this).
Foucault coined the term bio-power to refer to the government’s administration and recording of bio issues, such as birth and death rates, race, class, and gender. Foucault stated that this mode of power impacted how we view ourselves in relation to the wider community.
Foucauldian discourse analysis (FDA), sometimes called Foucaultian discourse analysis, is a form of discourse analysis with a particular focus on the relationship between power and language. The method is based on Foucault’s theory of discourse and social control and aims to expose how those with power control people through language.
Discourse analysis = An in-depth and usually critical analysis of written, spoken, or signed language, examining how language fits into society.
Foucauldian discourse analysis is grounded in constructivism and critical theory. It critiques the power structures in society and aims to understand how language can construct societal knowledge and uphold existing power structures. Unlike traditional discourse analysis, FDA is more critical of the political implications of using language to legitimise power.
In their book Using Foucault’s Methods (1999), Kendall and Wickham outlined five steps for conducting Foucauldian discourse analysis. They are:
Recognise that discourse is a set of constructed statements that are organised systematically.
Identify how and why those statements are constructed.
Think about the things that are allowed to be communicated and those that aren't.
Reflect on how ‘spaces’ (e.g. newspapers) where new statements are made are created.
Think about how practices can be both material and discursive at the same time.
The previous list might look a little daunting to you, so let’s try and make things a little simpler. When conducting Foucauldian discourse analysis, try asking yourself the following questions:
Is the information being presented as a fact? Is there any space to reflect or question this?
How is the discourse constructed? Who is included or excluded? Are the sources reliable? Is there any evidence?
What is normalised in the discourse, and what, or who is made to appear abnormal?
Who benefits from this discourse?
FDA can examine how powerful and authoritative groups in society use language to express dominance, control others, and make gains for themselves. One of the main purposes of FDA is to expose and weaken the accepted dominant discourses that exclude, oppresses, and marginalises members of society.
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Discourse analysis is pretty diverse in its approach and can vary across disciplines. Typically speaking, there is no set way to conduct a discourse analysis.
Many theorists disagree on what exactly the term ‘discourse’ means, with some saying that Foucault's definition doesn't go far enough. For example, multimodal discourse analysts also examine things such as whole movies, statues, food, and games to examine what these things can reveal about society.
Many discourse theorists also disagree about what is deemed ‘real’ and what is constructed. Extreme constructivists believe that everything we know is constructed by discourse, whereas critical realists believe there is a physical reality, which is represented through discourse.
There are also a few criticisms of Foucault himself:
He often excluded women from his studies and disregarded their role throughout history.
He wasn’t great at taking criticisms and often refused to change his views.
Foucault believed that language was used by the powerful to construct knowledge and truths. These truths could then be used as a form of social control over the less-powerful.
Foucault believed that power structures were created and maintained through the use of discourse. He believed people with power had more influence over what others deemed to be 'true'.
According to Foucault, the main types of power are:
Foucault was a highly influential philosopher, sociologist, and historian, who had a keen interest in the construction of knowledge and power through discourse. Foucault believed that language was used to construct knowledge and truths that benefited the most powerful in society.
Choose the best definition of discourse in accordance with Foucault.
The use of communication (written or spoken) to construct knowledge and truths.
True or false: a newspaper headline is an example of discourse.
What factors can affect a person’s perceived power?
Socio-economic status (wealth and class)
Ethnicity and race
Foucault was associated with the Structuralist movement and which other movement?
The Post-structuralist movement.
What are the four main modes of power recognised by Foucault?
Which mode of power do we exercise over ourselves in order to fit into the 'norm'?
What is Foucauldian discourse analysis?
A form of discourse analysis with a particular focus on the relationship between power and language.
Which type of power is held by people in positions of authority?
True or false, Foucault believed there are absolute truths in the world?
False. Foucault believed 'truths' are constructed with language.
What is the main aim of conducting Foucauldian discourse analysis?
To expose and weaken the accepted dominant discourses that exclude, oppresses, and marginalises members of society.
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