Article 11 echr

Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is a fundamental pillar that safeguards freedom of assembly and association. This essential human right permeates various aspects of society, ensuring that individuals can collectively express, promote, and defend their common interests. This article will provide an in-depth analysis of Article 11 ECHR, exploring key principles, notable case law, the relationship between Article 11 and the right to strike, criticisms, damages for breaches, and practical guidance for navigating the complexities of this vital provision. In understanding, interpreting, and applying Article 11 ECHR, it is crucial to be familiar with the key principles, scope, and limitations governing the right to assembly and association. Moreover, it is in examining landmark cases and their impact on the interpretation of Article 11 that we gain invaluable insight into the practical application of this essential human right. Furthermore, an analysis of the right to strike, its significance and limitations under Article 11 ECHR, contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the importance of this provision in upholding human rights law. Addressing criticisms of Article 11 ECHR will shed light on the areas of concern and the potential scope for reforms, while examining damages awards in notable cases involving violations of Article 11 will provide valuable guidance on the factors courts consider in such circumstances. Finally, this comprehensive guide will equip you with the knowledge, resources, and tips necessary for effectively navigating and applying Article 11 ECHR in legal practice.

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Table of contents

    Understanding Article 11 ECHR

    Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is a cornerstone of human rights law, safeguarding the right to freedom of assembly and association. This fundamental entitlement allows individuals to freely connect and work together in various aspects of life, be it social, political or economic.

    The Importance of Article 11 ECHR

    Article 11 ECHR plays a crucial part in promoting and upholding core democratic principles, as it ensures that individuals can participate in social life and voice their opinions through gatherings and associations. These might encompass political protests, demonstrations, labour unions, or social clubs. Ensuring such participatory rights strengthens democracy and contributes to free expression and social cohesion. The right to freedom of assembly and association not only impacts the involved individuals but also society as a whole.

    Article 11 ECHR is one of the foundational principles of the European Convention on Human Rights, along with the rights to life, liberty and security, fair trial, freedom of expression, and others.

    The Role of Article 11 in Upholding Human Rights Law

    Article 11 ECHR plays a pivotal role in enforcing human rights law by enabling individuals to join forces and raise awareness on various social, political, and economic issues. This may be achieved through different forms of gatherings and associations, such as:

    • Political meetings and protests
    • Trade unions and strike actions
    • Non-governmental organizations
    • Social clubs and groups

    By ensuring that people have the right to organize and express their thoughts collectively, Article 11 ECHR can contribute to the betterment of society, lead to policy changes, and enhance the overall human rights framework.

    Key Principles of Article 11

    Article 11 of the ECHR encompasses two main principles: the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and the right to freedom of association with others. These principles promote democratic values and protect individuals' ability to join together for various social, political and economic purposes.

    Freedom of Peaceful Assembly: The right to come together and collectively express, promote or defend common interests, as long as it remains peaceful and nonviolent.

    Freedom of Association: The right to collaborate and unite with others in groups, clubs, organizations or any other collective entity formed for a common purpose, be it political, economic, social, or cultural.

    Scope and Limitations of Article 11 ECHR

    Although Article 11 safeguards the right to freedom of assembly and association, it may not be an unlimited and unconditional right. In certain circumstances, restrictions may be imposed to maintain public safety, prevent disorder or crime, or protect others' rights and freedoms. These limitations, however, must meet specific criteria:

    • Prescribed by law
    • Necessary in a democratic society
    • Proportionate to the legitimate aim pursued

    Moreover, Article 11 also contains a specific provision related to trade unions, stating that authorities must not interfere with their operations if the union's objectives and activities remain lawful.

    It is essential to strike a balance between upholding the right to freedom of assembly and association and ensuring public safety and order. The European Court of Human Rights plays a critical role in interpreting and applying Article 11, ensuring that limitations on this right are justified, necessary, and proportionate.

    In the case of Plattform "Ärzte für das Leben" v. Austria, the European Court of Human Rights held that the authorities failed to protect the right to peaceful assembly of a pro-life organization, as they did not intervene when counter-demonstrators disrupted their gathering, which was a breach of Article 11.

    Article 11 ECHR Case Law

    The application and interpretation of Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights are significantly influenced by case law, with cases brought before the European Court of Human Rights providing valuable insights into the practical implications of the right to freedom of assembly and association. This case law has evolved over time, shaping the understanding of Article 11's principles and clarifying ambiguities and disputes related to its implementation.

    Landmark Cases Involving Article 11 ECHR

    Various landmark cases have shaped the understanding and interpretation of Article 11 ECHR. These cases have offered valuable insights on the scope, limitations, and practical implications of the right to freedom of assembly and association. Some of these landmark cases include:

    • Djavit An v. Turkey (2003): The case dealt with the applicant's expulsion from a political party and raised questions about individuals' right to freedom of association within political organizations.
    • Plattform "Ärzte für das Leben" v. Austria (1988): This case addressed authorities' obligations to protect the right to peaceful assembly, following the disruption of a pro-life organization's gathering by counter-demonstrators.
    • Demonstration cases Ternovszky v. Hungary and Éva Molnár v. Hungary (2010): These cases clarified the right to freedom of assembly, emphasizing that both the prior notification of a public gathering and the authorities' obligation to facilitate such gatherings are important aspects of the right.
    • Vona v. Hungary (2013): This case concerned the dissolution of a far-right organization based on its purportedly anti-Roma and anti-Semitic views, highlighting the limitations to the right to freedom of association when human dignity is at stake.

    Notable Outcomes and Precedents of Article 11 Cases

    The landmark cases involving Article 11 ECHR have established several noteworthy outcomes and precedents that have broadened the understanding of the right to freedom of assembly and association. Some significant legal principles and precedents include:

    • Positive obligations: Authorities have an obligation to protect and facilitate the exercise of the right to freedom of assembly, as established in Plattform "Ärzte für das Leben" v. Austria.
    • Prior notification: The European Court of Human Rights clarified in Ternovszky v. Hungary and Éva Molnár v. Hungary that the requirement for prior notification of a public gathering is a key aspect of the right to freedom of assembly.
    • Limitations on extremist organizations: In Vona v. Hungary, the European Court of Human Rights held that the dissolution of an extremist organization which poses a threat to human dignity might be justified as a legitimate restriction on the right to freedom of association.
    • Role of political parties: The Djavit An v. Turkey case emphasized the importance of freedom of association within political organizations, highlighting that political expression should be protected under Article 11 ECHR.

    These legal principles and precedents have helped refine the interpretation and application of Article 11 ECHR, ensuring that the right to freedom of assembly and association is effectively safeguarded across the Council of Europe member states.

    Impact of Case Law on Article 11 Interpretations

    Case law from the European Court of Human Rights has significantly impacted the interpretation and understanding of Article 11 ECHR. As the European Court of Human Rights adjusts its rulings to reflect societal changes, ensure consistency, and address evolving challenges, the interpretations of Article 11 evolve accordingly. Key aspects of how case law has affected Article 11 interpretations include:

    • Evolution of the concept of "assembly": Case law has contributed to a broader understanding of the term "assembly" under Article 11, which now encompasses not just physical gatherings but also virtual and online meetings.
    • Expansion of the right to strike: The European Court of Human Rights has, over time, expanded the right to strike under Article 11, increasingly recognizing the importance of industrial action as a means of association and collective bargaining.
    • Greater focus on proportionality: Case law has emphasized the necessity for proportionate restrictions on Article 11 rights, requiring any interference with these rights to be justified, necessary, and proportionate to the aim pursued.
    • Enhanced scrutiny of state interference: A growing body of case law has led to increased scrutiny of state interference with the right to freedom of assembly and association, with the European Court of Human Rights closely examining the justifications for restrictions and the proportionality of such measures.

    The impact of case law on Article 11 interpretations has been significant, ensuring that the European Convention on Human Rights remains adaptable to changing societal conditions, safeguards the right to freedom of assembly and association, and holds states accountable for their actions in this regard.

    Article 11 ECHR Right to Strike

    The right to strike is a fundamental aspect of the right to freedom of assembly and association under Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights. This right allows workers to participate in collective industrial action, such as strikes, as a means to fight for improved working conditions, fair wages, and better labour policies.

    The Right to Strike and its Significance in Article 11 ECHR

    The right to strike is an essential component of Article 11 ECHR, as it enables workers to pursue their collective interests and express their grievances through industrial action. By providing a platform for labour disputes and negotiations, the right to strike contributes to the development of fair and balanced labour relations policies, and enhances workers' bargaining power concerning their employers.

    The European Court of Human Rights recognizes the importance of the right to strike as an indispensable element of the freedom of association, in particular regarding trade unions. Trade unions play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of power between employers and employees by representing workers' interests and advocating for improved working conditions. The right to strike enhances the effectiveness of trade unions and empowers workers to access and utilize the democratic processes in place for addressing labour issues.

    Some of the key aspects of the right to strike under Article 11 ECHR include:

    • Participation in strike action as a form of collective bargaining
    • Ability to use industrial action to negotiate for improved working conditions, wages, or labour policies
    • Protection against unfair dismissal or discrimination arising from participation in strikes
    • Recognition of trade unions' role in organizing and leading strike actions

    Limitations on the Right to Strike under Article 11

    Although the right to strike is a fundamental aspect of Article 11 ECHR, it is not an absolute right. There are certain limitations on the right to strike, which are necessary to protect public interest, public safety, and the rights and freedoms of others. The limitations must be:

    • Prescribed by law
    • Necessary in a democratic society
    • Proportionate to the legitimate aim pursued

    The European Court of Human Rights has addressed several cases involving the right to strike, exploring the permissible scope of limitations and the conditions under which restrictions on strike action can be justified. Some of the main limitations on the right to strike under Article 11 ECHR include:

    • Restrictions on strikes that pose a threat to public safety or national security
    • Measures to ensure the continuity of essential public services during strike action
    • Requirements for prior notification and negotiation before resorting to strikes
    • Prohibitions on wildcat strikes or spontaneous industrial action without prior notice or warning

    Striking Cases and their Effect on Article 11 ECHR

    Several cases related to the right to strike have been brought before the European Court of Human Rights, contributing to the development and understanding of Article 11 ECHR concerning industrial action. These cases have set vital legal precedents and clarified various aspects of the right to strike, such as the permissible limitations on strike action and the relationship between the right to strike and other rights enshrined in the ECHR.

    Some notable cases that have significantly impacted the right to strike under Article 11 ECHR include:

    • Wilson, National Union of Journalists and others v. United Kingdom (2002): The Court held that the UK government's restrictions on trade union activities and bargaining power amounted to a violation of Article 11. The case emphasized the importance of collective bargaining and the right to strike as an essential component of the freedom of association.
    • Demir and Baykara v. Turkey (2008): The Court ruled that the Turkish government's refusal to recognize the right to strike for civil servants violated Article 11 and acknowledged the importance of international labour standards and the right to strike in the context of freedom of association.
    • Enerji Yapi-Yol Sen v. Turkey (2009): The Court held that the trade union's dissolution due to organising a national strike was disproportionate, violating Article 11, and stressed the importance of trade unions' rights to defend their members' interests through strike action.

    The impact of these cases on the interpretation and understanding of Article 11 ECHR with respect to the right to strike has been significant. They have recognized the importance of the right to strike as an integral part of the freedom of association, clarified acceptable limitations on strike action, and gradually expanded the scope of the right to strike within the context of Article 11.

    Criticisms of Article 11 ECHR

    Despite its fundamental role in safeguarding the right to freedom of assembly and association, Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) has attracted various criticisms from multiple perspectives. Some argue that it lacks clarity, favouring selectivity in its interpretation and application, and others call for reforms to address perceived shortcomings and enhance its effectiveness in protecting the freedom of assembly and association.

    Common Article 11 ECHR Critiques

    Several common criticisms of Article 11 ECHR have emerged over the years. These critiques encompass various aspects of its scope, applicability, and real-world impact:

    • Ambiguity: Some critics argue that Article 11 ECHR's wording, particularly concerning permissible limitations on the freedom of assembly and association, is ambiguous, leading to inconsistencies in its interpretation and application by the European Court of Human Rights.
    • Selectivity: The European Court of Human Rights has been accused of displaying selectivity when adjudicating cases involving clashes between different rights, prioritising certain rights over the freedom of assembly and association enshrined in Article 11 ECHR.
    • Overemphasis on state security: In some instances, critics assert that the European Court of Human Rights may overemphasise the protection of state security, tolerating an excessive reduction of freedom of assembly and association in order to preserve public order or national security.
    • Burden on individuals: Critics point out that the burden of proof lies heavily on individuals to show that their rights under Article 11 ECHR have been breached, which could deter individuals from filing applications to the European Court of Human Rights and ultimately undermine the protection of the right to freedom of assembly and association.
    • Insufficient implementation: Concerns have been raised regarding the effectiveness of the enforcement and implementation of European Court of Human Rights judgments related to Article 11 ECHR at the national level, which might weaken the right's overall impact.

    Relevance and Effectiveness of Article 11 Criticisms

    Some critics argue that the aforementioned concerns remain relevant and effectively demonstrate the limitations and challenges associated with Article 11 ECHR. However, it is essential to consider that the European Court of Human Rights constantly evolves its jurisprudence and interpretation of the Convention to address such shortcomings and ensure the effective protection of human rights, including freedom of assembly and association.

    Potential impacts of these criticisms include:

    • Reduced faith in the European Court of Human Rights' ability to safeguard the right to freedom of assembly and association
    • A possible chilling effect on individuals' willingness to exercise their rights under Article 11 ECHR, due to the perceived lack of clarity and support from the Court
    • Increased calls for reform at both the national and international levels to address the identified shortcomings of Article 11 ECHR

    Potential Reforms to Address Article 11 ECHR Criticisms

    To tackle the outlined criticisms and enhance the effectiveness of Article 11 ECHR, several potential reforms could be considered. These reforms aim to improve the interpretation, application, and enforcement of the right to freedom of assembly and association:

    • Clarify permissible limitations: Increasing clarity on the permitted restrictions regarding freedom of assembly and association could enhance legal certainty, promote consistency in the European Court of Human Rights' adjudications, and deter overly intrusive interferences in the exercise of Article 11 rights.
    • Strengthen protection for vulnerable groups: Enhancing safeguards for minority groups and individuals whose rights have been disproportionately affected by the restrictions on freedom of assembly and association could contribute to a more inclusive and human rights-oriented approach.
    • Balance competing rights: The European Court of Human Rights could adopt a more balanced approach when considering cases where Article 11 rights conflict with other rights, ensuring that freedom of assembly and association is not systematically undermined.
    • Enhance implementation of judgments: Greater efforts could be made in ensuring effective implementation and enforcement of European Court of Human Rights judgments related to Article 11 ECHR at the national level, thus promoting compliance and adherence to the Convention's standards.
    • Foster dialogue and cooperation: Encouraging dialogue and cooperation between the Council of Europe member states, the European Court of Human Rights, and other stakeholders might contribute to the identification of new strategies and solutions that can better protect and promote the right to freedom of assembly and association under Article 11 ECHR.

    By addressing the criticisms and implementing potential reforms, the Council of Europe member states and the European Court of Human Rights can continually improve the interpretation and application of Article 11 ECHR, ultimately ensuring the effective protection of the right to freedom of assembly and association.

    Damages for Breaches of Article 11 ECHR

    In cases where it is established that a breach of Article 11 ECHR has occurred, the European Court of Human Rights can award damages to the applicant as a form of compensation for the harm suffered. Damages awarded for breaches of Article 11 ECHR can be either pecuniary, intended to compensate for material losses, or non-pecuniary, compensating for moral damages and emotional distress.

    Calculating Damages for Article 11 ECHR Violations

    The European Court of Human Rights employs a case-by-case approach when calculating damages for Article 11 ECHR violations. The Court considers various factors and circumstances to determine an appropriate amount of compensation for the applicant.

    Factors Influencing Damages Awards in Article 11 ECHR Cases

    Several factors may influence the amount of damages awarded by the European Court of Human Rights in cases involving breaches of Article 11 ECHR:

    • Nature and severity of the violation: The Court analyses the extent of the breach and its harmful consequences before calculating damages. A more severe infringement will generally result in higher compensation.
    • Pecuniary damages: For material losses and expenses incurred due to the violation, the Court will award damages that reflect the actual financial loss suffered by the applicant, provided that sufficient evidence and proof are presented.
    • Non-pecuniary damages: For moral damages, emotional distress, or other non-financial harm, the Court assigns an amount that aims to compensate the applicant for their suffering and reflects the gravity of the violation.
    • Causal link: The Court ensures that there is a direct causal link between the violation and the damages claimed. Any damages awarded must be directly attributable to the breach of Article 11 ECHR.
    • Precedents and comparability: The Court observes the amounts previously awarded in similar cases to maintain consistency and fairness in its judgments.
    • Just satisfaction: The ultimate goal of awarding damages is to provide the applicant with "just satisfaction" for the violation they have suffered. This may include financial compensation for loss and suffering, as well as measures that contribute to the effective enjoyment of their rights in the future.

    Significant Damages Cases Involving Article 11 ECHR

    Some notable cases involving damages awards for Article 11 ECHR violations offer insights into the application of the factors and principles mentioned above. These cases can help illustrate the Court's approach to calculating and awarding damages in different circumstances:

    • Ouranio Toxo v. Greece (2005): The applicants, members of a political party, were awarded €7,000 each for non-pecuniary damages after it was found that the authorities forcibly disbanded their public gathering, violating their right to freedom of assembly under Article 11 ECHR.
    • Éva Molnár v. Hungary (2011): In this case, the applicant organised a spontaneous public gathering and found herself facing administrative penalties. The Court ruled that her Article 11 rights were violated and awarded her €3,000 for non-pecuniary damages.
    • Mahir Aghayev v. Azerbaijan (2017): This case involved individuals who were prevented from participating in a political opposition meeting. The Court concluded that their Article 11 rights were breached, awarding each applicant €6,000 in non-pecuniary damages.

    These cases underline the importance of the European Court of Human Rights' role in ensuring the effective protection and enforcement of the right to freedom of assembly and association under Article 11 ECHR, including the award of appropriate damages to compensate victims for harm suffered due to violations of their rights.

    Navigating Article 11 ECHR: A Comprehensive Guide

    In order to effectively navigate Article 11 ECHR and its implications for freedom of assembly and association, it is crucial to thoroughly understand and apply the fundamental principles of this article in your legal studies and practice. The following sections offer detailed insights into key resources and practical tips that will aid you in mastering Article 11 ECHR and utilising it successfully in your legal work.

    Understanding and Applying Article 11 ECHR Principles

    Comprehending and employing the principles of Article 11 ECHR involves a deep dive into the goals, limitations, and case law pertaining to this critical human rights provision. As you explore Article 11, significant attention should be devoted to crucial aspects such as its significance for democratic societies, legal precedents established by the European Court of Human Rights, and the balance between upholding human rights and maintaining public safety and order.

    In order to effectively understand and apply Article 11 ECHR principles, consider focusing on the following areas:

    • Thoroughly examine the wording of Article 11 and its two main components: the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and the right to freedom of association.
    • Investigate the case law developed by the European Court of Human Rights, paying particular attention to landmark cases that have shaped the interpretation and application of Article 11 ECHR.
    • Assess the permissible limitations on the right to freedom of assembly and association based on public safety, public order, or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.
    • Analyse the European Court of Human Rights' approach to balancing competing rights and interests under Article 11 ECHR and the wider European Convention on Human Rights.
    • Recognize the role of trade unions and the right to strike as part of the freedom of association guaranteed by Article 11 ECHR.

    Essential Resources for Studying Article 11 ECHR

    There are several essential resources available to assist you in mastering the principles and key aspects of Article 11 ECHR. Utilising these materials can support your legal studies, enhance your understanding of the ECHR's provisions, and equip you with the necessary tools to successfully navigate Article 11 in your legal practice:

    • ECHR Official Text: The official text of the European Convention on Human Rights, including Article 11, provides the legal basis for understanding the right to freedom of assembly and association. Access the official text online from the Council of Europe's website (https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf).
    • Hudoc Database: The European Court of Human Rights' jurisprudence is a fundamental resource for comprehending the scope and application of Article 11 ECHR. Explore the Hudoc database for a wealth of case law, judgments, and legal analyses (https://hudoc.echr.coe.int).
    • The European Court of Human Rights' Guide on Article 11: The Court's official guide to Article 11 offers a thorough overview of the legal principles and case law related to the right to freedom of assembly and association. The guide provides an invaluable resource for law students and practitioners alike (https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Guide_Art_11_ENG.pdf).
    • Academic Books and Articles: Delve into scholarly literature focusing on Article 11 ECHR, such as textbooks, journal articles, and research papers discussing the history, interpretation, and application of the article in depth. This literature offers valuable insights, criticisms, and perspectives that can enhance your legal studies and practice.
    • Online Courses and Webinars: Consider enrolling in online courses or attending webinars that discuss the European Convention on Human Rights, with a particular focus on Article 11. These educational resources can help you gain an in-depth understanding of the article's practical implications and its role in current legal issues.

    Tips for Navigating Article 11 ECHR in Legal Practice

    Successfully applying and integrating Article 11 ECHR principles in your legal practice involves consistent commitment to mastering the relevant case law, staying up-to-date with contemporary legal developments, and adopting a proactive approach to analysing complex legal scenarios. The following tips can support your efforts to effectively navigate Article 11 ECHR within your legal career:

    • Engage in Continued Learning: Regularly update your knowledge of Article 11 ECHR's interpretation, application, and case law to ensure you remain conversant with the latest legal developments and arguments.
    • Communicate Clearly: Clearly articulate your legal arguments and reasoning concerning Article 11 ECHR when drafting legal documents, presenting oral submissions, or engaging in negotiation and dispute resolution processes.
    • Develop a Comprehensive Understanding: Seek to understand the broader context of the European Convention on Human Rights to better comprehend how Article 11 ECHR integrates within the wider legal framework and interacts with other Convention rights.
    • Apply Practical Case Analysis: Integrate the principles and case law of Article 11 ECHR in your analysis of real-world legal scenarios involving freedom of assembly and association, taking into account factors such as proportionality, limitations, and balancing competing interests.
    • Collaborate with Colleagues: Build relationships with fellow legal professionals, experts, and academics who specialise in human rights law and Article 11 ECHR, fostering a strong network to help you stay informed and share knowledge and experiences.

    By effectively implementing these tips and strategies, you can successfully navigate the complex world of Article 11 ECHR and enhance your legal practice in matters involving freedom of assembly and association.

    Article 11 echr - Key takeaways

    • Article 11 ECHR safeguards the right to freedom of assembly and association, protecting individuals' ability to collectively express, promote, and defend common interests.

    • Landmark cases, such as Djavit An v. Turkey and Plattform "Ärzte für das Leben" v. Austria, have shaped the interpretation and application of Article 11 ECHR.

    • Article 11 ECHR recognizes the right to strike as an integral part of the freedom of association, particularly regarding trade unions and collective bargaining.

    • Common criticisms of Article 11 ECHR include ambiguity, selectivity, and overemphasis on state security, potentially affecting the Court's ability to effectively protect the right to freedom of assembly and association.

    • In cases involving breaches of Article 11 ECHR, the European Court of Human Rights can award damages as compensation for both pecuniary and non-pecuniary harm suffered by the applicant.

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    Frequently Asked Questions about Article 11 echr
    What is Article 11 of the ECHR?
    Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) safeguards the right to freedom of assembly and association. This includes the right to form and join trade unions, political parties, and other organisations, as well as the freedom to peacefully assemble and protest without undue interference from the government. However, limitations may be imposed on these rights if deemed necessary for reasons of national security, public safety, or the protection of others' rights and freedoms. The UK, as a signatory, is required to uphold and respect the rights outlined in Article 11.
    Is Article 11 a limited right?
    Yes, Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is a limited right. Although it guarantees the right to freedom of assembly and association, it also permits restrictions on these rights in specific circumstances, such as when necessary for national security, public safety, or the prevention of disorder and crime, provided they are proportionate and prescribed by law.
    Is Article 11 of the ECHR an absolute right?
    No, Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is not an absolute right. It guarantees the right to freedom of assembly and association, but it allows for certain restrictions when necessary for reasons such as national security, public safety, or the prevention of crime and disorder. These restrictions must be prescribed by law and be necessary in a democratic society.
    What does Article 11 of the ECHR mean?
    Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) refers to the right to freedom of assembly and association. This means that every individual has the right to gather with others, in a peaceful manner, for any lawful purpose. It also allows individuals to form and join trade unions to protect their interests. However, this right can be subject to certain restrictions when necessary to maintain public order, national security, or to protect the rights and freedoms of others.
    When was Article 11 of the ECHR written into UK law?
    Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) was incorporated into UK law through the Human Rights Act 1998, which came into force on 2nd October 2000.

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