Select your language

Suggested languages for you:
Log In Start studying!
StudySmarter - The all-in-one study app.
4.8 • +11k Ratings
More than 3 Million Downloads
Free
|
|

All-in-one learning app

  • Flashcards
  • NotesNotes
  • ExplanationsExplanations
  • Study Planner
  • Textbook solutions
Start studying

Psychological Perspectives in the Treatment of Disorders

Save Save
Print Print
Edit Edit
Sign up to use all features for free. Sign up now
Psychological Perspectives in the Treatment of Disorders

Have you ever wondered why some people, whether a celebrity or someone you know who seems to have it all, have mental health problems? Externals don't always reflect what one experiences on the inside. Still, psychology helps explain how we should approach these kinds of questions.

  • What are different psychological perspectives on psychological disorders?
  • What are psychological approaches to mental illnesses?
  • What are psychological approaches to treatment?

Perspectives on Psychological Disorders

Psychological Perspectives in the Treatment of Disorders, Teen having a counselling session with a therapist, pexels.com, StudySmarterTeen having a counseling session with a therapist, pexels.com

As experts in psychology learn about psychological disorders, developing one perspective after another gives us a better understanding of how mental illnesses occur, paving the way for more research and identifying the best treatments.

Biological Perspective

From the biological perspective, genetic influence contributes to the development of psychological disorders and chemical imbalances (e.g., neurotransmitters and hormones), and abnormal brain development. Understanding brain structure and function through recent technological advances in brain imaging revealed how abnormalities increase the risk for mental disorders. Regarding OCD, having first-degree relatives with the disorder increases the chance of having it. Other psychological disorders with genetic components include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and ADHD.

Psychosocial Perspective

This perspective states that stress, negative thoughts, mental capacity, and other environmental factors are also involved in developing psychological disorders. In determining the likelihood of a mental disorder, the diathesis-stress model is one example that combines both biological and psychosocial perspectives. This model refers to how a diathesis followed by an adverse event increases the risk of developing a disorder. A diathesis is any genetic or situational factor (e.g., childhood trauma) that predisposes a person to mental illness.

Psychological Approaches to Mental Illness

The psychological approach to mental illness sees an interaction between mental health development and the environment. Mental health problems occur when people deal with new situations using maladaptive coping mechanisms. Psychological approaches help provide a holistic perspective on the possible root causes of mental illnesses. There are five psychological approaches to mental illness: biopsychosocial, psychoanalytic, behavioral, humanistic, and cognitive.

Biopsychosocial Approach

Developed by George Engel in 1977, the biopsychosocial approach views a person's mental health as a product of interaction between biological, psychological, and social factors. This approach states that no single factor is attributed to a mental illness; rather, it is the cumulative effects of positive and negative interactions between biological, psychological, and social factors. When negative effects outweigh the positive, mental health problems can occur. Schizophrenia, for example, has been shown to have a genetic component. Add to that adverse experiences in childhood; together, they can trigger the development of schizophrenia.

Biological factors include genes, hormones, brain structure, and disease.

Social factors include childhood experiences, family environment, relationships, and media.

Psychological factors include I.Q. and E.Q., thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and socio-emotional skills.

Psychoanalytic Approach

Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic approach introduces the concept of the id, the superego, and the ego, which make up our personality.

The id represents our instincts, the superego reflects our conscience, and the ego is what negotiates between the id and superego.

When the id, superego, and ego come into conflict, defense mechanisms evolve in response to anxiety brought about by these conflicts. Psychological problems occur as a result of inner conflicts and overblown defense mechanisms. An example of a defense mechanism is repression, wherein a person pushes his painful memories into his unconscious mind. An individual abused as a child may forget his traumatic experience but show aggression or hostility towards others.

Behavioral Approach

Proponents of the behavioral approach such as John Watson and BF Skinner see behavior as shaped by the environment. Learned normal and abnormal behaviors are due to reinforcement and punishment directly experienced, or seen done to someone else. In this view, environmental stimuli trigger abnormal behavior, followed by negative consequences. An example of this is modeling, where a child who always sees his mother panic over a cockroach may soon develop a fear of cockroaches. Behaviorism sheds light on how people develop fears triggered by situations, and how reinforcement strengthens or weakens abnormal behavior.

Classical Conditioning

In classical conditioning, abnormal behavior is seen as a conditioned response to a stimulus, which gives insight into why people have phobias or anxiety. In general, this approach involves eliminating unwanted behaviors through exposure to triggers of fear or anxiety, and learning by association. Association techniques can be teaching relaxation responses in the face of a feared stimulus, or presenting something unpleasant associated with the targeted negative behaviors or thinking patterns. In this way, both psychologist and patient achieve extinction.

Operant Conditioning

The operant conditioning approach focuses on presenting consequences to change behaviors, such as giving rewards for target behaviors. The goal is to motivate people towards developing socially acceptable behavior, including rewarding small efforts towards achieving a client's goal, such as in-behavior modification, or exchanging tokens for an item, such as in token economies. Psychologists also use techniques that model good behavior, allow clients to practice that behavior, and provide timely and appropriate feedback.

Humanistic Approach

According to the humanistic approach developed by proponents such as Carl Rogers, psychological problems occur when people experience roadblocks in achieving growth and self-actualization. The concept behind the humanistic approach is that people have the free will to act and be the person they want to be, but it can affect their self-image when they try to live up to others' expectations. Insecurities appear, and they lose sight of their capabilities, leading to an abnormality in behavior. An example of this is when a child experiences conditional positive regard from his parents; in this, praise and approval from others are conditional. He may grow up constantly seeking validation from others.

Cognitive Approach

In the cognitive approach, our thoughts and perception may cause psychological disorders. For example, all of us experience cognitive distortions, which is an inaccurate and faulty thinking pattern, but the perpetuation of this type of thinking contributes to anxiety and depression. Over-generalizing is an example of cognitive distortion. When a person over-generalizes, he applies a standard from one situation to other unrelated ones. For instance, a person who fails at a job interview might think that he is not capable enough, and will most likely fail in whatever he does.

Psychological Approaches to Treatment

Psychological perspectives in the treatment of disorders provide guidelines on the appropriate treatment, but they are not the only factor that determines effectiveness. In supporting a client's mental health, his working relationship with the treatment provider is equally important. The major psychological approaches to treating disorders include psychodynamic, humanistic, behavioral, and cognitive perspectives.

Psychodynamic Therapies

The psychodynamic approach, introduced by Sigmund Freud, involves a deep understanding of the unconscious mind and emotions of the patient. The therapist plays an active role in identifying the patient's mental health concerns through one-on-one sessions, where the patient sits on a chair facing the therapist. This approach also includes interpretation of the concerns causing the mental health problem. Through these sessions, the patient can also understand the causes of the disorder rooted in his unconscious mind.

Humanistic Therapies

The humanistic approach emphasizes the importance of a therapeutic relationship built on empathy and focuses on what happens during sessions, not past events. The therapist helps the patient discover his true self, motivations, and desires. Sessions encourage openness, where the patient is the expert, and the therapist facilitates growth, allowing the patient to gain his sense of worth and be emotionally understood. With these sessions, the therapist gets an insight into the patient's perspective.

Self-actualization. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, self-actualization is the achievement of an individual's highest potential. The humanistic approach to treatment also deals with helping clients realize their full potential. Humanists believe that sometimes other people's expectations make a person lose sight of his true goals and potential, hindering him from self-actualization.

Carl Rogers's Self Theory. In this theory, people develop their self-beliefs and perceptions (the "self") in response to their experiences. When an individual experiences something not in line with the "self," he feels anxious. Unconditional positive regard is an innate need for approval and affection from others regardless of our self-perception and actions. When we do not receive unconditional positive regard, we experience problems with our worth, questioning our real self and our ideal self. The ideal self is the image we portray based on others' expectations. The difference between the real self and the ideal self is called incongruence. The key step to becoming fully functioning (self-actualization), according to Rogers, is acceptance and unity of the real self and ideal self.

Active listening. A technique pioneered by Carl Rogers as part of helping clients develop self-acceptance and a more positive outlook. This concept involves giving full attention to another person's thoughts, actions, and emotions through acknowledgment, reflection, reaffirmation, and clear understanding. Active listening helps patients develop self-awareness of their feelings, enabling them to move towards self-actualization.

Behavioral Therapies

The primary focus of the behavioral approach is to eliminate unwanted behaviors and encourage positive behaviors by using techniques built upon the principles of operant and classic conditioning of Pavlov, Skinner, and Watson. Phobia and anxiety disorders are some examples of applications of this approach. Therapists help develop good behavior by utilizing positive reinforcement such as token economies. In token economies, a token such as a sticker acts as a reinforcer, received for good behavior, and exchanged for a reward. On the other hand, negative punishment and extinction reduce undesirable behaviors such as a child's tantrums, by removing a reinforcer (e.g., attention).

Cognitive Therapies

The cognitive approach to treatment involves changing faulty thinking patterns that produce behavioral problems leading to mental health concerns. Therapists using this approach help patients recognize their distorted perceptions about their problems and then guide them into changing their beliefs and learning to think more rationally. One of the ways patients gain insight into their faulty reasoning is by writing down their thoughts following their negative emotions. Common applications include anxiety disorders, OCD, and depression.

Advances in evidence-based approaches greatly support mental health, not just for those afflicted with disorders, but also for the mental health community.

Psychological Treatment Examples

Psychological treatment stems from the psychological perspectives in the treatment of disorders. The main treatment types are psychotherapy (psychological) and biomedical treatment (biological).

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is a type of treatment mainly focusing on methods in psychology, involving counseling or sessions between a trained professional and a patient to address mental health problems. Psychotherapy addresses the psychological nature of disorders concerning their factors, causes, and remedies. To improve a patient's mental health, trained professionals examine the underlying causes of the disorder and employ strategies to promote the patient's sense of well-being. This treatment is designed to reduce unwanted symptoms and help the patient develop skills to respond to roadblocks in life. Examples of psychotherapy include psychoanalysis, exposure therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

Psychoanalysis

In psychoanalysis, key terms need to be remembered: free association, resistance, transference, and dream analysis. During sessions, free association is when the psychoanalyst asks the patient to express whatever emotions or ideas arise in their minds. Resistance is when the patient unconsciously blocks the expression of those thoughts and feelings. Transference is when the patient transfers ill feelings, such as hostile feelings toward a parent, to the psychoanalyst, when conflicts arise between the psychoanalyst and the patient. Dream analysis involves a detailed description of dreams, which Freud believed represent unmet needs, and then analyzing them.

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

This therapy combines two psychological perspectives in the treatment of disorders: cognitive and behavioral. Therapists focus on helping patients change their thinking and behavior by exploring cognitive distortions and problematic perceptions. The cognitive aspect involves creating awareness of unhealthy thinking patterns and developing how to think in a more positive light. The behavioral aspect involves teaching healthy coping behaviors and responses to challenges. Applications of cognitive-behavioral therapy include drug addiction, bipolar disorder, PTSD, and eating disorders.

Biomedical Therapy

This therapy uses medicines, as well as healthcare procedures, in the treatment of mental disorders. Biomedical therapy attributes biological factors to mental disorders as physical and mental health are connected. This therapy also addresses symptoms brought about by psychological disorders such as hallucinations from schizophrenia. Medications help the hallucinations subside. The treatment plan often involves a combination of biomedical therapy and psychotherapy, but not all would need biomedical treatment. Examples of biomedical treatment are pharmacotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and psychosurgery.

Pharmacotherapy

Pharmacotherapy involves medications used to treat psychological symptoms. These include antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and anxiolytics.

Antipsychotics have two categories: first-generation or typical antipsychotics, and second-generation or atypical antipsychotics. These medications help deal with symptoms of schizophrenia, such as hallucinations and paranoia. The drug's effect is that it blocks dopamine, which is a type of neurotransmitter associated with schizophrenia, where a lack or excess of it causes hallucinations.

Antidepressants treat depressive and anxiety symptoms. There are three types of antidepressants: monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCA), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).

MAOIs are used to treat the major depressive disorder and atypical depression. They block the action of monoamine oxidase enzymes, responsible for breaking down dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.

On the other hand, TCAs help treat disorders such as bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. These medications work by maintaining healthy levels of serotonin and norepinephrine; too much or too little may result in anxiety or depressive symptoms.

SSRIs are the most often used and have the least side effects among the three classes. These drugs only deal with serotonin and help increase its levels in the brain in moderate to severe depression.

Mood stabilizers such as lithium help deal with extreme mood swings in bipolar disorder. Still, the effects of the drug may take a while to work, requiring careful monitoring to prevent any side effects. These drugs work by calming areas of the brain and decreasing the abnormal activity of neurotransmitters, which can cause mood problems.

Anxiolytics, also known as anti-anxiety drugs, treat anxiety disorders. Its action involves increasing the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid, a neurotransmitter that lowers brain activity. Too much brain activity can cause symptoms of anxiety and other mental health problems.

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

Electroconvulsive therapy deal with symptoms related to conditions like severe depression or bipolar disorder by delivering an electrical current to the brain. Patients receive an anesthetic before the treatment to help them relax. Side effects from this treatment include temporary memory loss associated with repeated administrations. This treatment is a last resort, only used if other treatments don't work. A similar treatment to ECT is transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which involves stimulating electrical activity in the brain to improve symptoms of severe depression. Like ECT, TMS is also used as a last resort.

Psychosurgery

Psychosurgery is a surgical procedure of removing or destroying a small part of the brain to improve symptoms of mental disorders. Psychiatrists and neurosurgeons work together in carrying out this operation. One example of the most often used type of psychosurgery is capsulotomy. Like ECT, capsulotomy is a last resort in treating severe OCD. In this procedure, neurosurgeons create lesions on a small area of the anterior capsule, the brain region near the thalamus, using heat. There have been reports of adverse damage and even death from this treatment, with risks including cognitive problems, seizures, and weight problems.

Methods of Treatment

The method of treatments includes group therapy, family and couples therapy and self-help groups.

Group Therapy

Group therapy uses similar approaches to individual counseling. It may prove to be more helpful for people who struggle to share their problems in one-on-one sessions. This method allows patients to learn about others who have similar problems and better understand their problems through peer feedback. Patients also benefit from the lower cost of group therapy over individual sessions.

Family and Couples Therapy

Family and couples therapy involves open discussions between spouses and family members. The concerned parties discover each others' points of view, while the therapist remains neutral. Individuals become more aware of each other's concerns and feelings, training them to improve their communication and relationship.

Self-Help Groups

Self-help groups are a collaboration of individuals who have the same problem with no involvement of a trained professional. This method serves as an avenue for individuals to share their insights and receive assistance and support from each other. Group members are responsible for conducting their meetings.

Psychological Perspectives in the Treatment of Disorders - Key takeaways

  • Psychological approaches to mental illness help understand different factors at play in the development of psychological disorders, such as genetics, stress, life experiences, inner conflicts, reinforcement, and thinking patterns.

  • Psychological approaches to treatment influence the effectiveness of treatment and the working relationship between a client and trained professional. Major approaches include psychodynamic, humanistic, behavioral, and cognitive perspectives.

  • Psychological approaches to treatment involve various techniques such as active listening, modeling, shaping, reinforcement, interpretation, and exposure.

  • Psychological mental illness treatments are either psychological, or involve medical treatments and procedures.

  • Methods of treatment include group therapy, family and couples therapy, and self-help groups.

Frequently Asked Questions about Psychological Perspectives in the Treatment of Disorders

The psychological approach to mental illness sees an interaction between mental health development and the environment. Mental health problems occur when people deal with new situations using maladaptive coping mechanisms. Psychological approaches help provide a holistic perspective on the possible root causes of mental illnesses.

There are five psychological approaches to mental illness: biopsychosocial, psychoanalytic, behavioral, humanistic, and cognitive

The main treatment types are psychotherapy (psychological) and biomedical treatment (biological).

Psychotherapy is a type of treatment mainly focusing on methods in psychology involving counseling or sessions between a trained professional and a patient to address mental health problems. Psychotherapy addresses the psychological nature of disorders concerning their factors, causes, and remedies. To improve a patient's mental health, trained professionals examine the underlying causes of the disorder and employ strategies to promote the patient's sense of well-being. This treatment is designed to reduce unwanted symptoms and help the patient develop skills to respond to roadblocks in life. Examples of psychotherapy include psychoanalysis and cognitive-behavioral therapy. 

Final Psychological Perspectives in the Treatment of Disorders Quiz

Question

____  is based on Freud's theories. Based on free associations, dreams, transference, and resistances of the patient. All used to help the patient find self-insight.

Show answer

Answer

Psychoanalysis

Show question

Question

______________ is based on these theories of psychoanalysis, this therapy is based on the interactions between psychologist and patient to help gain insight into thoughts, feelings, and actions.

Show answer

Answer

Psychoanalytic therapy

Show question

Question

____________ helps us to release the energy that is developed from any conflicts within our id-ego-superego.

Show answer

Answer

Psychoanalytic theory

Show question

Question

Who developed psychoanalytic therapy?


Show answer

Answer

Sigmund Freud

Show question

Question

____________ happens in therapy when patients openly and freely share feelings and thoughts.

Show answer

Answer

Free association

Show question

Question

_________ is a signal that there may be anxiety or defending against a subject or area of life. The psychotherapist most often will interpret this avoidance.

Show answer

Answer

Resistance

Show question

Question

The ____________ of emotions to the psychoanalyst is based on the emotional connections in other relationships in their life (for example, family and friends).

Show answer

Answer

Transference

Show question

Question

______ - The key difference is helping to identify current feelings. While there is still the inclusion of past experiences, such as in childhood, there is less of an emphasis on just identifying the connections.

Show answer

Answer

Psychodynamic therapy

Show question

Question

Humanistic therapy approaches have cultivated their branch of therapeutic help through _____ therapy.

Show answer

Answer

client-centered

Show question

Question

_____ is different as there is a heightened focus on self-worth

and self-fulfillment as a guide to surpassing negative emotions or gaining insight into a situation.

Show answer

Answer

Humanistic therapy

Show question

Question

Rather than look for a hidden meaning or connection, ____ asks the client to take responsibility for one's thoughts, feelings, and actions.

Show answer

Answer

humanistic therapy

Show question

Question

True or False:

Most often, those who were affected by anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and eating disorder have reported that (long-term) psychoanalytic therapy has great benefit to achieving resolution

Show answer

Answer

true

Show question

Question

____________ requires a person to listen attentively by echoing, restating, or seeking clarification while a person speaks or expresses themself.

Show answer

Answer

Active listening

Show question

Question

Which of the following is not a technique used in humanistic therapies?

Show answer

Answer

Direct guidance

Show question

Question

What attributes are especially important for a therapist to have in client-centered therapy?

Show answer

Answer

  • Empathy
  • Genuine
  • Unconditional positive regard

Show question

Question

Who developed Gestalt therapy?

Show answer

Answer

Frederick "Fritz" Perls

Show question

Question

What is the empty chair technique?


Show answer

Answer

In the empty chair technique, the client is asked to imagine a person, with whom they have unresolved issues,  sitting in a chair across from them. They are to then engage in conversation by alternating between themselves and role-playing that person.  The goal is to resolve the issues by allowing the person to honestly express their feelings about the relationship.

Show question

Question

___________ is a type of humanistic therapy that is primarily focused on helping people understand their place in the universe.

Show answer

Answer

Existential therapy

Show question

Question

Who developed client-centered therapy?

Show answer

Answer

Carl Rogers

Show question

Question

What is unconditional positive regard? 

Show answer

Answer

Unconditional positive regard is the commitment to showing genuine care and acceptance of the client without judgment.

Show question

Question

Therapists using existential therapy strive to __________ by helping them recognize their power to make rational choices and positive changes in their life.

Show answer

Answer

maximize client potential

Show question

Question

_____________ aims to improve psychological functioning by helping an individual explore one's feelings, develop a healthy sense of self, find meaning, and focus on one's strengths through self-discovery and self-fulfillment.

Show answer

Answer

Humanistic therapy

Show question

Question

True or False? Humanistic therapies focus on curing an illness rather than promoting growth. 


Show answer

Answer

False

Show question

Question

True or False? Humanistic therapy focuses on the present and the future and less on the past. 

Show answer

Answer

True

Show question

Question

How might a humanistic therapist treat depression? 

Show answer

Answer

The therapist may try to encourage the client to consider what might bring greater meaning into their life, rather than uncover the cause of depression.

Show question

Question

True or False? Humanistic therapy is not more effective than having no therapy at all. 


Show answer

Answer

False

Show question

Question

True or False? Humanistic therapy can be as effective as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in promoting positive change.

Show answer

Answer

True

Show question

Question

True or False? Cognitive therapy focuses on the present rather than events of the past.

Show answer

Answer

True

Show question

Question

Who set the framework for cognitive therapies with rational-emotive behavior therapy?

Show answer

Answer

Albert Ellis

Show question

Question

Ellis found that people often assume that their emotions are caused by a(n) ______ rather than their thinking. 

Show answer

Answer

event

Show question

Question

While Ellis set the framework for cognitive therapy with REBT, ____________ is credited with developing traditional cognitive therapy used to treat depression. 

Show answer

Answer

Aaron Beck

Show question

Question

Beck found that there is a therapeutic benefit to challenging a person's ____________ that are harmful.

Show answer

Answer

automatic thought patterns

Show question

Question

True or False? Cognitive therapy is usually only used to treat severe mental health conditions.

Show answer

Answer

False

Show question

Question

Which of the following is not a goal of cognitive therapy?


Show answer

Answer

All of these are goals

Show question

Question

What is catastrophizing?

Show answer

Answer

Catastrophizing refers to behavior that is overgeneralized, relentless, and self-blaming.

Show question

Question

To test a client's beliefs, a therapist may have the client engage in _________ in which they are required to defend their thoughts and beliefs.


Show answer

Answer

validity testing

Show question

Question

True or False? Cognitive therapy is rarely integrated with other forms of therapy such as behavioral therapy. 

Show answer

Answer

False

Show question

Question

Which of the following is not a way a therapist may use cognitive-behavioral therapy to treat anxiety?


Show answer

Answer

Use a non-directive approach and let the client discover a solution with guidance

Show question

Question

Cognitive processing therapy (CPT) is an extension of cognitive-behavioral therapy that is specifically geared toward people who have endured some form of _________.

Show answer

Answer

Trauma

Show question

Question

How many sessions are usually in cognitive processing therapy?

Show answer

Answer

12

Show question

Question

True or False? CPT is almost like a miracle cure and most people do not require any additional therapy or support after completing the program.  



Show answer

Answer

False. CPT is not meant to miraculously cure someone of their trauma, but rather reframe their thinking so they are better able to cope with the lingering effects of their trauma. 


Show question

Question

When using ____________ as a technique, the therapist will guide the client in an exercise in which they are asked to imagine a difficult situation from the past. Then, they work together to practice successful ways to cope with that problem.


Show answer

Answer

decatastrophizing

Show question

Question

What is cognitive-behavioral therapy?

Show answer

Answer

Cognitive-behavioral therapy uses a combination of behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy techniques to help treat psychopathologies and other forms of psychological distress.

Show question

Question

Cognitive therapy takes a different approach by focusing on the client's thinking to help treat psychopathologies. The assumption is that how we think influences how we ________.

Show answer

Answer

feel

Show question

Question

Psychoanalysis places a lot of the focus on a person's _____ while cognitive-behavioral therapy is more focused on a person's _______.

Show answer

Answer

past ; present

Show question

Question

True or False? Cognitive-behavioral therapy and client-centered therapy share a common goal. 

Show answer

Answer

True

Show question

Question

___________ is the practice of teaching people to understand their mental health conditions.

Show answer

Answer

Psychoeducation

Show question

Question

___________ is a technique used in cognitive-behavioral therapy that takes a person's self-defeating thoughts and modifies them to be more affirming. 


Show answer

Answer

 Cognitive reframing

Show question

Question

ABC Functional Analysis is an example of what cognitive-behavioral technique?

Show answer

Answer

Assigning homework

Show question

Question

___________ allows you to walk through a situation and externalize the scenarios whirling in your head. This process can help you gain insight into how you might feel or how to behave when you are actually in that situation.

Show answer

Answer

Role-playing

Show question

More about Psychological Perspectives in the Treatment of Disorders
60%

of the users don't pass the Psychological Perspectives in the Treatment of Disorders quiz! Will you pass the quiz?

Start Quiz

Discover the right content for your subjects

No need to cheat if you have everything you need to succeed! Packed into one app!

Study Plan

Be perfectly prepared on time with an individual plan.

Quizzes

Test your knowledge with gamified quizzes.

Flashcards

Create and find flashcards in record time.

Notes

Create beautiful notes faster than ever before.

Study Sets

Have all your study materials in one place.

Documents

Upload unlimited documents and save them online.

Study Analytics

Identify your study strength and weaknesses.

Weekly Goals

Set individual study goals and earn points reaching them.

Smart Reminders

Stop procrastinating with our study reminders.

Rewards

Earn points, unlock badges and level up while studying.

Magic Marker

Create flashcards in notes completely automatically.

Smart Formatting

Create the most beautiful study materials using our templates.

Just Signed up?

Yes
No, I'll do it now

Sign up to highlight and take notes. It’s 100% free.