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Job Production

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Job Production

Job production is the opposite of mass production. Instead of producing a large number of products at a time, job manufacturers focus on creating only one unique good. As a result, the product is of higher quality and tailors to the specific need of the customer. In today's article, let's discuss what job production is and how it works.

Job Production Definit

Job production is one of the primary production methods adopted by organisations worldwide, along with flow production and Just-in-time production.

Job production is used to produce a number of personalised products.

Examples of job production include an artist drawing portraits of different people, an architect creating home plans for different families, or an aerospace manufacturer making advanced rockets and spacecraft.

The production of the given product only starts when an order is made. Also, each order is unique and has to meet the specific requirements of the customer. Those engaged in job production can only work on one order at a time. Once an order is completed, another is initiated.

Features of job production

Job production produces one-off, personalised goods rather than mass-market items.

Those working in job production are referred to as jobbers. Jobbers can be highly-skilled individuals who specialise in one craft - such as photographers, painters, barbers - or a group of workers within a company such as a group of engineers building spacecraft.

Job production tends to be undertaken by a single professional or a small firm. However, many larger companies can engage in job production. While some job production services are basic and involve little use of technology, others are complex and require advanced technology.

It only takes a small group of marketing professionals to initiate a marketing campaign, whereas it can take thousands of engineers and workers to build an aircraft.

Job production can be financially rewarding since customers are willing to pay more for the personalised product or service. But this also means manufacturers have to invest more time and effort in creating a supreme product that meets specific requirements.

Boeing is one of the world's largest aircraft manufacturers. In 2019, the company generated $76.5 billion in revenues by fulfilling commercial aircraft orders for airlines around the world.1 However, the cost to produce each Boeing can reach up to hundreds of millions of US dollars.2

Due to personalisation, products made with job production tend to bring more customer satisfaction. However, it's difficult to find replacements or spare parts. If one part is missing or broken, the owner may have to replace it with an entirely new item.

To succeed in job production, companies need to first come up with a set of clear objectives and specifications (descriptions of the design). They should also work hard to build a reputable brand image and ensure all customers are happy with what they received. Satisfied customers will become brand evangelists who give the company free word-of-mouth advertising or referrals.

Job production examples

Many businesses adopt job production for their product creation process. Below are examples of low-tech and high-tech production jobs:

Low-tech production jobs

Low-tech jobs are jobs with little technology or equipment. The production takes up little space and needs only one or a few individuals to perform the task. Also, the skills are easily picked up.

Some examples include:

  • Hairdressers

  • Dressmaking

  • Painting

  • Building

  • Plumbing

Job Production Painting example StudySmarterFigure 1. Painting as a low-tech production job example, Wikimedia Public Domain

High-tech production jobs

High-tech jobs require more advanced technology and equipment to get the job done. The processes are complex, time-consuming, and labour intensive. Workers in these job production plants tend to have highly specialised skills.

Some examples include:

  • Spaceship building

  • Film production

  • Company software

  • Military equipment

A real-life example:

Falcon 9 is a reusable rocket designed by SpaceX to take humans into space and back. Reusability allows SpaceX to reuse the most expensive parts of launched rockets for the new ones and brings down the cost of space exploration. Falcon 9s are manufactured in SpaceX's headquarter factory which spans over 1 million square feet with a maximum production rate of 40 rocket cores per year (2013).3

Job Production SpaceX Rocket Example StudySmarterFigure 2. SpaceX Rocket as a high-tech job production example, Wikimedia Public Domain

Advantages and disadvantages of job production

There are both advantages and disadvantages to job production (see Figure 3 below):

Advantages of job production

  • High-quality products due to small-scale and focused production

  • Personalised products bring in more revenues and customer satisfaction

  • Higher job satisfaction due to employees’ strong commitment to the tasks

  • More flexibility compared to mass production

Disadvantages of job production

For manufacturers

  • Higher costs to employ high-skilled workers

  • Production can take up a lot of time and resources

  • Specialised machines are needed for complex items

  • A lot of calculations or assessment needs to be made before the work is carried out

For consumers:

  • Higher fees for personalised products

  • Difficulty in finding replacements since the products are uniquely designed

  • Longer waiting times to receive the final product

Job Production advantages and disadvantages of job production StudySmarterFigure 3. Advantages and disadvantages of job production, StudySmarter

Job production is the production of one-off, unique products tailored to the specific needs of the customers. Instead of juggling two or more tasks at a time, 'jobbers' concentrate on only one task. The main benefit of job production is to ensure the highest quality of the product produced and improve customer satisfaction. However, due to unique features, the production can take a lot of time and resources.

Job Production - Key takeaways

  • Job production is the production of high-quality, customised products that meet customers' specific needs.
  • Job production processes involve a highly-skilled individual, a group of workers, or a company working on one task at a time.
  • Job production is highly rewarding but also requires a significant amount of time and effort from the manufacturer.
  • To succeed in job production, companies need to first come up with a set of clear objectives and specifications (descriptions of the design).
  • The advantages of job production include higher quality products, customer satisfaction, employee job satisfaction, and flexibility in production.
  • The disadvantages of job production include higher costs, difficulty to find replacements, and longer waiting times till completion.

Sources:

1. Staff, 'About Boeing Commercial Airplanes', boeing.com, 2022.

2. Erick Burgueño Salas, 'Average prices for Boeing aircraft as of March 2021 by type', statista.com, 2021.

3. Staff, 'Production at SpaceX', spacex.com, 2013.

Frequently Asked Questions about Job Production

Job production is one of the primary production methods adopted by organizations worldwide, along with flow production and Just-in-time production. Job production is used to produce a number of personalized products. 

The advantages of job production are as follows:


  • High-quality products due to small-scale and focused production

  • Personalized products bring in more revenue and customer satisfaction

  • Higher job satisfaction due to employees’ strong commitment to the tasks

  • More flexibility compared to mass production

The challenges of job production for manufacturers include the high costs required to employ high-skilled workers, the amount of time and resources required for production, the need for specialized machines, and the need for many calculations or work that should be carried out before the work.


Job production challenges for customers include the higher prices for the customized product, the difficulty in finding replacements for the personalized products, and the long waiting times.


An example of a low-tech production job includes painting and dressmaking.


An example of a high-tech production job includes spaceship building and film production. 

Job production produces one-off, personalized goods. Job production tends to be undertaken by a single professional or a small firm. While some job production services are basic and involve little use of technology, others are complex and require advanced technology. Job production can be financially rewarding since customers are willing to pay more for the personalized product or service.  

Final Job Production Quiz

Question

What is job production?

Show answer

Answer

Job production is a production method where only one order is completed at a time. Each order is unique and meets the specific requirements of the customer. 

Show question

Question

What are the characteristics of products made with job production?

Show answer

Answer

Unique

Show question

Question

Give some examples of job production

Show answer

Answer

An artist drawing portraits of different people. 

An architect creating home plans for different families. 

An aerospace manufacturer making advanced rockets and spacecraft.   

Show question

Question

What is not a feature of job production?

Show answer

Answer

Production of one-off, personalised products

Show question

Question

Why does job production bring in more profit for the manufacturer?

Show answer

Answer

Because customers are willing to pay more for high-quality and personalised products or services 

Show question

Question

Some job production services require advanced technology while others involve little use of technology or equipment.

Show answer

Answer

True

Show question

Question

Give 3 examples of high-tech job production?

Show answer

Answer

  • Film production 
  • Spaceship building
  • Military equipment

Show question

Question

Give 3 examples of low-tech job production

Show answer

Answer

  • Hairdressers 

  • Dressmaking

  • Painting

Show question

Question

What are the advantages of job production?

Show answer

Answer

High-quality products 

Show question

Question

What are the disadvantages of job production to manufacturers? 

Show answer

Answer

  • high wages paid to highly skilled workers
  • high investment in time and resources
  • use of specialised machines
  • a lot of calculations before production 

Show question

Question

What are the disadvantages of job production to consumers? 

Show answer

Answer

  • Higher fees for personalised items
  • Difficulty to find replacement
  • Longer waiting time

Show question

Question

What kind of firms can undertake a job product project?

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Answer

Usually small firms or a single professional, but some larger companies can undertake job production services as well. 

Show question

Question

What is the opposite to job production?

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Answer

Mass production

Show question

Question

Job production can be ... since customers are willing to pay more for the personalised product or service.  

Show answer

Answer

financially rewarding

Show question

Question

It is easy to find replacements for personalised products made with job production. 

Show answer

Answer

False

Show question

Question

To succeed in job production, companies need to first come up with a set of clear ... and ... (descriptions of the design) 

Show answer

Answer

objectives, specifications

Show question

Question

Job production produces ... products or services. 

Show answer

Answer

one-time, personalised

Show question

Question

Give 3 examples of job production.

Show answer

Answer

  • An artist drawing portraits of different people
  • An architect creating home plans for different families
  • An aerospace manufacturer making advanced rockets and spacecraft. 

Show question

Question

Manafacturers with job production invest more time and effort in producing unique products. 

Show answer

Answer

True

Show question

Question

Why is the production of a rocket a job production?

Show answer

Answer

It takes a large group of specilists to build a rocket.

Show question

Question

When does job production start?

Show answer

Answer

When an order is made

Show question

Question

Low-tech jobs are jobs with ... 


Show answer

Answer

little technology or equipment. 

Show question

Question

High-tech jobs require ... to get the job done. 

Show answer

Answer

advanced technology and equipment 

Show question

Question

What is not a benefit of job production?

Show answer

Answer

High-quality products 

Show question

Question

What is not a disadvantage of job production?

Show answer

Answer

Higher costs to employ high-skilled workers 

Show question

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