Energy Pathways

Energy pathways are fundamental components of geography, serving as vital conduits that transfer energy resources from production points to consumption zones. Such pathways encompass complex networks, through which oil, gas, electricity, and renewables are distributed globally. Understanding energy pathways provides insight into energy security, economic dynamics, and geopolitical relations. This article delves into various facets of energy pathways, evaluating the types and importance of these channels, the implications of disruptions, and the emergence of sustainable alternatives like solar and geothermal energy. Additionally, it explores the intricacies of global energy transfer and how innovation and shifting dynamics are framing the future of energy pathways.

Energy Pathways Energy Pathways

Create learning materials about Energy Pathways with our free learning app!

  • Instand access to millions of learning materials
  • Flashcards, notes, mock-exams and more
  • Everything you need to ace your exams
Create a free account
Table of contents

    Understanding Energy Pathways in Geography

    Energy pathways play a crucial role in understanding geographical processes and the interconnectedness of different regions. These pathways describe the route taken by energy from production to consumption, illustrating the flow of resources that powers the world's economies. Studying energy pathways helps you grasp how energy security, sustainable development, and geopolitical relationships are deeply influenced by geography.

    What is an Energy Pathway in Geography?

    Energy Pathways refer to the complex network of routes and methods employed to transport energy in various forms from a point of origin, where it is produced, to end-users or consumers. This term encompasses all stages from extraction, processing, and distribution to the final consumption of energy resources.

    These pathways can be geographically extensive, covering various modes of transportation such as pipelines, shipping routes, and power lines. Understanding these networks is essential for identifying the strengths and vulnerabilities of global and domestic energy systems. Energy pathways can also highlight the geopolitical significance of certain areas, such as straits and chokepoints that are critical for global energy security.

    Types of Energy Pathways

    The various pathways for energy transportation differ based on the type of energy resource and geographical constraints. Here are the primary types:

    • Pipeline transport is predominantly used for oil and gas and includes both transcontinental pipelines and local distribution networks.
    • Maritime routes are crucial for transporting oil, gas, and coal by tanker ships. Strategic seaways like the Strait of Hormuz play pivotal roles in the global energy supply.
    • Rail and road networks provide flexibility in transporting solid fuels such as coal and biomass, especially where other infrastructure is lacking.
    • Electrical grids are complex networks that deliver electricity from power plants to consumers, spanning entire continents. It includes international connections that allow energy trading between countries.

    For example, the Nord Stream pipeline that transports natural gas from Russia to Europe through the Baltic Sea is an energy pathway with significant political and economic implications. Its construction and operation can affect energy prices, supply security, and international relations.

    Importance of Energy Pathways for Energy Security

    Energy pathways are integral to the concept of energy security, which is the uninterrupted availability of energy sources at an affordable price. The robustness of energy transportation systems determines a nation's ability to secure a stable energy supply. As such, the diversification of energy pathways is often a strategic priority.

    Vulnerabilities in energy pathways can lead to supply disruptions from geopolitical tensions, piracy, or natural disasters. Additionally, the transition towards renewable energy sources is shaping new energy pathways that account for the geographical distribution of resources like sunlight and wind.

    This is especially relevant with the emergence of new 'green' energy corridors that aim to connect areas rich in renewable energy potential with major consumption centres. Such developments encourage energy independence and can mitigate the risks associated with the reliance on imported fossil fuels.

    Disrupted Energy Pathways and Their Impact

    Energy pathways are the lifelines of modern societies, facilitating the flow of energy from producers to consumers across the globe. However, disruptions to these essential channels can have far-reaching impacts on economic stability, national security, and the environment. Understanding these disruptions is key to managing risks and developing strategies to ensure energy security and sustainable development.

    Causes of Disruption in Energy Pathways

    Disruptions in energy pathways can occur for a variety of reasons, ranging from natural disasters to human-induced events:

    • Geopolitical Conflicts: Wars, territorial disputes, and political unrest can lead to the intentional sabotage of energy infrastructures or impose sanctions that disrupt energy trade.
    • Natural Disasters: Earthquakes, hurricanes, and other extreme weather events can damage critical infrastructure such as pipelines, power lines, and refineries.
    • Technological Failures: Unforeseen technical issues or accidents, such as oil spills or nuclear disasters, can cause significant disruptions.
    • Economic Factors: Market dynamics, such as changing energy demands or price volatility, influence energy flows and can lead to redirected or halted supply.
    • Policy Changes: Changes in energy policy or regulations, including the shift towards renewable energy, can alter the demand for certain fuels and disrupt existing pathways.
    • Piracy and Terrorism: Attacks on shipping routes or facilities by pirates or terrorist groups pose a risk to energy transportation.

    An illustrative example of such disruption took place during the 1973 Oil Crisis, where an embargo imposed by the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) led to significant shortages and price hikes in oil-importing nations.

    Advancements in tracking technologies and strategic reserves have been developed in the wake of such historical disruptions to offer better preparedness and response. Despite this, the complex interconnectivity of global energy systems means that unforeseen impacts of a disruption in one area can propagate quickly, creating cascading problems across multiple sectors.

    Effects of Disrupted Energy Pathways on Nations

    The effects of disrupted energy pathways on nations are multifaceted, impacting economic performance, human development, and international relations:

    • Economic Instability: Supply disruptions can lead to rising energy costs, inflation, and reduced industrial output.
    • Energy Security: Dependence on imported energy can leave nations vulnerable to external shocks, compelling a re-evaluation of national energy policies.
    • Environmental Harm: Disruptions of energy supplies, especially oil and gas, can result in ecological disasters through spills and accidents.
    • Health Impacts: Inadequate energy supplies can impede access to essential services, leading to worsened health outcomes.
    • Social Unrest: The scarcity of energy can provoke public dissatisfaction, leading to social or political upheaval.
    • Global Relationships: Disruptions can strain international relations, especially if they are due to geopolitical power plays.

    In the table below, you'll find a summary of the potential effects:

    Aspect AffectedPotential Impact
    Economic HealthInflation, unemployment, reduced GDP growth
    Political StabilityStrained international relations, increased domestic volatility
    EnvironmentPollution, habitat destruction
    Public HealthLowered access to healthcare, increased illnesses
    Social CohesionHeightened social divisions, protests

    During the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011, Japan faced an enormous challenge in managing the impacts of disrupted energy pathways. The closing of nuclear reactors led to a significant decrease in electricity generation, resulting in energy shortages, increased fossil fuel imports, skyrocketing costs, and growth in renewable energy investments.

    Did you know? The Straits of Malacca, one of the world’s most critical shipping lanes for energy pathways, is so narrow that it is referred to as a 'chokepoint,' making it highly vulnerable to piracy and geopolitical tensions.

    Nations often try to mitigate these impacts through the diversification of energy sources, investment in domestic energy infrastructure, and establishment of strategic reserves. The International Energy Agency (IEA), for example, requires member countries to maintain emergency oil stocks equivalent to at least 90 days of the previous year’s net imports. These strategic actions can help soften the blow of disruptions in energy pathways and enhance a nation's resilience in the face of a crisis.

    Examining Renewable Energy Pathways

    Renewable energy pathways are crucial for a sustainable future, facilitating the transition from finite, carbon-emitting fossil fuels to more sustainable sources. These pathways encompass the technology, infrastructure, and policies required to produce, transport, and utilise energy derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. Understanding these pathways is essential to tackling climate change and achieving energy security.

    Solar Energy Conversion Pathways

    Solar energy conversion pathways involve the processes which capture and convert sunlight into usable energy forms, primarily electricity and heat. Photovoltaic (PV) systems and Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants are the central technologies harnessing sunlight. PV systems convert light directly into electricity using the photovoltaic effect, whereas CSP plants use mirrors to concentrate sunlight to heat fluids and produce steam, which subsequently drives turbines for electricity generation.Solar PV panels consist of layers of semiconductor material, typically silicon. When sunlight strikes the panels, it excites electrons, creating an electric current captured by wiring within the cell. This current outputs direct current (DC) electricity, which is then converted to alternating current (AC) by an inverter for domestic or commercial use.CSP technologies, on the other hand, utilise parabolic troughs, discs, or towers lined with mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto receivers containing heat transfer fluids. These fluids, often synthetic oils or molten salts, can reach high temperatures, storing thermal energy efficiently before being used to generate steam and power a turbine-generator set.The efficiency of conversion and energy storage are key focus areas for innovation in solar energy pathways. Integrating energy storage systems, such as batteries for PV and thermal storage in CSP, is vital for providing stable energy supply and improving grid reliability.

    Photovoltaic Effect: The process by which a PV cell converts sunlight into electricity. When photons of light are absorbed by the semiconductor material in a PV cell, they release electrons from atoms, creating an electric current.

    A typical home solar PV system includes a set of solar panels installed on the roof, an inverter to convert the DC electricity to AC, potentially a battery storage system to store excess energy, and a connection to the power grid for any additional electricity needs or to feed surplus power back into the grid.

    Geothermal Energy Pathways

    Geothermal energy pathways draw on the Earth's internal heat, accessible through various geological formations. Utilised for both direct heating and electricity generation, these pathways have a significant advantage of providing a stable and continuous energy supply, unlike the intermittent nature of solar and wind resources. Geothermal plants tap into hydrothermal convection systems where naturally heated water rises towards the surface, providing a heat source.Three main types of geothermal power plants exist: dry steam, flash steam, and binary cycle. Dry steam plants take steam out of fractures in the ground and directly use it to turn turbines. Flash steam plants pull deep, high-pressure hot water into cooler, low-pressure water; the sudden reduction in pressure causes the liquid to turn into steam, which is then used to power a turbine. Binary cycle plants pass hot water through a secondary fluid with a lower boiling point, causing the fluid to vaporise and turn the turbines.For direct use applications, geothermal heat can be piped directly into buildings and industries for space heating, refrigeration, and agricultural uses. It also has applications in district heating, where multiple buildings are heated from a central plant.Geothermal energy's sustainability is determined by careful reservoir management to avoid overexploitation. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are an emerging technology that aim to expand geothermal application to areas without natural reservoirs by injecting water into artificially created fractures in the earth's crust.

    Binary Cycle Power Plant: A geothermal power generation method where heat from geothermal hot water is transferred to a secondary liquid with a lower boiling point than water. This secondary fluid turns to vapour and drives a turbine to produce electricity.

    Iceland, a country with extensive geothermal activity, powers much of its energy needs from geothermal sources. They use geothermal energy for a majority of their space heating requirements, thus considerably reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    Advancing Renewable Energy Pathways for Sustainability

    Advancing renewable energy pathways for sustainability involves not only the development and deployment of technologies but also creating supportive policies and building a strong renewable energy marketplace. To facilitate this progress, a focus on the research and development of new technologies, infrastructure for transmission and distribution, and financial mechanisms for investment is required.Technological advancements are crucial, including improving energy conversion efficiencies, developing cost-effective and environmentally friendly photovoltaic materials for solar panels, and enhancing energy storage solutions. Expanding the infrastructure for electricity transmission and distribution can help incorporate greater quantities of renewable energy into the grid, while smart grids enable better management of energy flow and demand response.On the policy side, governments are creating incentives like tax credits, renewable portfolio standards, and feed-in tariffs to encourage renewable energy development. International cooperation on technological innovation, capacity building, and investment can assist with the global scale-up of these technologies.The shift towards renewables is also stimulating new business models, including community-owned renewable energy projects and power purchase agreements (PPAs) that provide long-term energy price stability. Understanding the economic, environmental, and social dimensions of renewable energy systems is paramount for creating a sustainable energy future.

    Hint: Renewable energy pathways don't only reduce carbon footprints; they also offer significant opportunities for job creation and economic growth in manufacturing, installation, and maintenance sectors.

    Global Energy Transfer Pathways

    Global energy transfer pathways are the routes taken by energy as it is traded and transported across the world. From the vast networks of oil and gas pipelines to the sprawling electrical grids, understanding these pathways is indispensable for analyzing economic trends, crafting energy policy, and ensuring the security of energy supply chains. They demonstrate how interconnected the modern world is, and their complexity reflects the diverse geopolitical landscape that governs energy distribution.

    Mapping Global Energy Flow

    The mapping of global energy flow requires a comprehensive understanding of the geopolitical, technological, and logistical factors that govern the movement of energy resources. Energy, whether in the form of crude oil, natural gas, electricity, or coal, typically flows from regions endowed with abundant resources to those with high demand. Specialised routes and methods have evolved to ensure this flow is consistent and efficient.

    Consider the vast network of oil pipelines crisscrossing continents or the intercontinental networks of electrical grids. These complex systems consist of:

    • Extraction sites where energy resources are harvested
    • Transmission lines or pipelines that transfer these resources across various geographies
    • Storage facilities that regulate the supply of energy
    • Distribution networks that ensure the delivery of energy to the end consumer
    Global mapping also captures the intricate maritime routes employed for transporting liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the geopolitical chokepoints, like the Strait of Hormuz, which are pivotal for the secure passage of tankers and carriers.

    While mapping these pathways, graphical tools such as Geographic Information System (GIS) technology are extensively used to visualise and analyse the physical routes and the underlying data that impact energy flow, such as political stability, regulatory frameworks, and market demand. These visualisations can illustrate not just existing routes but also potential paths for future development, indicating the dynamic nature of global energy flow.

    An essential tool for energy mapping is the Sankey diagram, which represents the flow of energy from production to consumption. It visually captures the proportions of energy transferred through various pathways and can identify bottlenecks or major transfer points. An example of a Sankey diagram might illustrate the flow of oil from the Middle East to Europe, Asia, and other parts of the world, quantitatively depicting the volume in each leg of the journey.

    Further deepening the analysis, energy mapping can employ network theory, which applies mathematical principles to study complex systems. For example, the analysis of the resilience of the global energy network against potential disruptions – such as conflicts, natural disasters, or market fluctuations – can be enhanced using network theory models. These models assess vulnerability and the potential cascading effects of disruption on interconnected systems, providing insights into strategic reserves and routing options to mitigate risks.

    Did you know? Some critical shipping lanes used in global energy pathways are also popular cruising routes, adding to the complexity of managing these strategic maritime corridors.

    The Role of Energy Transfer Pathways in International Relations

    Energy transfer pathways are much more than physical infrastructures; they profoundly influence international relations by shaping alliances, fostering economic dependencies, and occasionally sparking geopolitical rivalries. Access to, and control over, these pathways can grant a country enormous geopolitical leverage.

    Nations with vast energy reserves or those that sit atop strategic transit routes can exert influence on the global stage. Additionally, importing countries aim to secure stable and diversified supplies, which leads to complex diplomatic engagements and security considerations. Policy decisions may be influenced by the necessity to ensure uninterrupted energy supplies, and sometimes, international policy can shape energy markets – for example, when sanctions are imposed on energy-exporting countries.

    Energy transfer pathways also encourage regional cooperation. Countries may collaborate to develop energy projects that benefit multiple stakeholders, such as the shared use of hydroelectric power resources. However, these collaborations can also generate disputes related to environmental concerns, resource rights, and revenue sharing. The intersection of energy and environmental policies is evident in discussions on carbon emissions and climate change, where global cooperation is seen as essential for transitioning to sustainable energy pathways.

    As an illustration of their importance, consider the Nord Stream gas pipeline running from Russia to Germany under the Baltic Sea, and the geopolitical discussions it has stirred between European countries, Russia, and the United States. This single energy pathway has provoked conversation on topics ranging from economic benefits and energy diversification to national security and territorial sovereignty, demonstrating the intricate interplay between the physical movement of energy and diplomatic relations.

    For example, the development of the Eurasian Land Bridge, which connects East Asia with Europe, can potentially reshape global energy pathways. By providing alternative overland routes for energy supplies, it might reduce the dependency on sea lanes that are vulnerable to piracy or political control, thereby altering the geopolitical landscape.

    Remember, the OPEC oil embargo of 1973 serves as a classic example of how energy pathways are crucial in international relations, illustrating the power that energy-exporting countries can wield in geopolitics.

    Future Outlook for Energy Pathways

    The future outlook for energy pathways is geared towards greater sustainability, resilience, and integration of innovative technologies. As the world seeks to balance the growing demand for energy with environmental concerns and geopolitical shifts, the evolution of these pathways is becoming increasingly crucial. The focus on renewable energy sources, advancements in energy storage, and smarter infrastructure heralds a transformative era in how energy is produced, distributed, and consumed across the globe.

    Innovations in Renewable Energy Pathways

    Renewable energy pathways are witnessing significant innovations that promise to reshape the landscape of energy systems. These innovations span various aspects, including energy generation, storage, distribution, and efficiency. For instance, the development of perovskite solar cells illustrates breakthroughs in photovoltaics, offering higher efficiencies and lower manufacturing costs than traditional silicon-based solar cells.Energy storage technologies are crucial for overcoming the intermittency issues of renewable sources. Innovations like liquid air energy storage (LAES) and advancements in lithium-ion batteries are enhancing the capacity to store energy during peak production times for use when demand is high. 'Power-to-X' technologies, which convert electricity into other energy carriers such as hydrogen, are emerging as a versatile solution for energy storage and transportation.Smart grid technologies are integral to renewable energy pathways, leveraging data analytics and internet of things (IoT) devices to optimise energy flow. Bidirectional smart grids not only distribute power but also allow consumers to act as producers - feeding excess energy, like that generated from rooftop solar panels, back into the grid. This decentralised approach to energy distribution improves grid reliability and resilience.Enhancements in grid infrastructure also include the implementation of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for long-distance energy transmission. HVDC reduces energy losses and allows for the integration of remote, utility-scale renewable energy sites into national grids. This is pivotal as the geographic areas with the highest renewable energy potential are often located far from consumption centres.Moreover, digitalisation of energy systems is streamlining operations, providing real-time data for better decision-making, and facilitating demand-response management. Combined with artificial intelligence and machine learning, these systems can predict patterns in energy consumption and generation, enabling more efficient balancing of supply and demand.

    Participation in renewable energy pathways is also expanding through community energy projects and peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading platforms, which empower individuals and communities. Blockchain technology is being explored to create secure and transparent platforms for such P2P energy transactions, enabling users to buy, sell, or exchange surplus renewable energy without the need for traditional intermediaries.

    'Power-to-X': A term used to describe technologies that convert electricity into other forms of energy such as heat, hydrogen, or synthetic fuels. This is especially relevant for using surplus renewable energy to produce hydrogen as an energy carrier.Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES): An energy storage technology that uses electricity to cool air until it liquefies, stores the liquid air in tanks, then exposes it to ambient temperatures to expand and drive a turbine as it turns back into a gas.

    Hint: Floating solar farms are an innovative approach to photovoltaic systems, utilising bodies of water to install solar panels, thus saving on land space and benefiting from the cooling effect of water to improve efficiency.

    Preparing for a Shift in Global Energy Dynamics

    The global energy landscape is on the cusp of a profound transformation. A shift in global energy dynamics is necessitated not only by the imperative to tackle climate change but also by the opportunities presented by technological advancement and the changing geopolitical context. Energy security concerns, sustainability goals, economic competitiveness, and equity considerations are driving nations to revise their energy strategies.The transition encompasses an increased reliance on distributed energy generation systems and the expansion of renewable energy sources. Governments and organisations are actively investing in infrastructure that can support a higher percentage of renewable energy within the energy mix. Traditional energy systems, primarily centralised and reliant on fossil fuels, are being rethought towards more flexible, integrated, and resilient frameworks.Preparation for this shift involves significant policy initiatives, including carbon pricing mechanisms, subsidies for renewable energy technologies, and mandates for energy efficiency. International collaboration through agreements like the Paris Agreement on climate change highlights the collective effort required for a global energy transition.Global energy trading patterns are expected to change, potentially lessening the dominance of oil and gas as countries diversify their energy portfolios. This shift may lead to geopolitical realignments, as countries currently reliant on fossil fuel exports seek to develop alternative economic strategies and resources-rich countries may gain leverage. Meanwhile, consumer behaviours and industrial practices are also evolving to incorporate energy-saving measures and increased use of renewable sources.Adaptations in the workforce and the development of new skill sets are essential to support the burgeoning green economy. Educational institutions and vocational training centres are beginning to offer programs centred on renewable energy technology and sustainable practices. As part of preparation for this dynamic shift, future-oriented energy planning tools are being used by policymakers to chart possible scenarios and develop robust strategies.

    The shift in global energy dynamics is also spurring innovation in green finance, with the introduction of green bonds and sustainable investment funds. These financial instruments provide capital for projects that have positive environmental impacts, including renewable energy developments, and are an indispensable part of funding the transition. In conjunction, the concept of a 'just transition' has gained traction, aiming to ensure that this shift to sustainable energy is equitable and leaves no community behind, especially those currently dependent on fossil fuel industries for their livelihoods.

    Just Transition: A principle and a process that emphasizes the need for fairness and equity in the move towards a low-carbon economy. It involves ensuring that workers in traditional energy sectors and their communities receive support and opportunities in the emerging sustainable economy.

    One example of shifting global energy dynamics is the European Green Deal, an ambitious plan by the European Union to become climate neutral by 2050. It involves a comprehensive set of policy initiatives aimed at transforming the EU's energy system, boosting the use of renewable energy, improving energy efficiency, and investing in innovative energy technologies.

    Hint: Disruptive technologies like electric vehicles (EVs) contribute to the shift in global energy dynamics by reshaping the transport sector, traditionally a major consumer of fossil fuels, and paving the way for increased use of electricity as a clean fuel.

    Energy Pathways - Key takeaways

    • Energy Pathways: Networks of routes and methods that transport energy from production to consumption, integral to energy security and sustainable development.
    • Types of Energy Pathways: Pipeline transport, maritime routes, rail and road networks, and electrical grids are primary ways to transfer different energy resources over geographical distances.
    • Disrupted Energy Pathways: Can be caused by geopolitical conflicts, natural disasters, technological failures, economic factors, policy changes, and terrorism, leading to wide-ranging impacts on nations.
    • Renewable Energy Pathways: Include solar energy conversion pathways with technologies like photovoltaic systems and Concentrating Solar Power plants, and geothermal energy pathways tapping the Earth's heat.
    • Global Energy Transfer Pathways: Essential for analyzing economic trends, energy policy, and ensuring energy supply chain security due to intricate geopolitical and logistical factors.
    Frequently Asked Questions about Energy Pathways
    What are the most important energy pathways currently in use for global trade?
    The most important energy pathways for global trade are maritime routes such as the Strait of Hormuz, the Suez Canal, and the Panama Canal, along with key pipeline networks like the Druzhba pipeline in Russia and the Keystone pipeline in North America.
    How do the major energy pathways influence geopolitical relationships between countries?
    Major energy pathways, such as oil and gas pipelines, influence geopolitical relationships by creating dependencies, strategic alliances, and potential conflicts over control of resources and distribution routes, often aligning producer and consumer nations while contributing to tensions in transit regions.
    What factors determine the routes of energy pathways across the globe?
    The routes of energy pathways across the globe are determined by factors such as the locations of energy sources and demand centres, political stability, geographical obstacles, technological capabilities, and economic considerations including cost efficiency and energy market dynamics.
    How can changes in energy pathways affect a country's economy and energy security?
    Changes in energy pathways can diversify a country's energy sources, potentially lowering costs and reducing dependency on imports, thereby enhancing energy security. However, shifts can also disrupt established industries, affect trade balances, and necessitate investment in new infrastructure and technologies, impacting the economy.
    What are the environmental impacts of different energy pathways on the regions they traverse?
    Different energy pathways can lead to habitat disruption, pollution, and landscape alteration. Pipelines may cause soil and water contamination, power lines can disrupt wildlife corridors, and transport of fuels can risk spills and air quality degradation. Renewable energy pathways may also impact land use and ecosystems.

    Test your knowledge with multiple choice flashcards

    What are energy pathways in the context of geography?

    Why are energy pathways important for global energy security?

    How do different types of energy pathways impact geopolitical relationships?

    About StudySmarter

    StudySmarter is a globally recognized educational technology company, offering a holistic learning platform designed for students of all ages and educational levels. Our platform provides learning support for a wide range of subjects, including STEM, Social Sciences, and Languages and also helps students to successfully master various tests and exams worldwide, such as GCSE, A Level, SAT, ACT, Abitur, and more. We offer an extensive library of learning materials, including interactive flashcards, comprehensive textbook solutions, and detailed explanations. The cutting-edge technology and tools we provide help students create their own learning materials. StudySmarter’s content is not only expert-verified but also regularly updated to ensure accuracy and relevance.

    Learn more
    StudySmarter Editorial Team

    Team Energy Pathways Teachers

    • 23 minutes reading time
    • Checked by StudySmarter Editorial Team
    Save Explanation

    Study anywhere. Anytime.Across all devices.

    Sign-up for free

    Sign up to highlight and take notes. It’s 100% free.

    Join over 22 million students in learning with our StudySmarter App

    The first learning app that truly has everything you need to ace your exams in one place

    • Flashcards & Quizzes
    • AI Study Assistant
    • Study Planner
    • Mock-Exams
    • Smart Note-Taking
    Join over 22 million students in learning with our StudySmarter App