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# Higher Order Functions

Dive into the fascinating world of Computer Science with this comprehensive exploration of higher order functions. This cornerstone concept plays a prominent role in programming paradigms, vital for making your code more efficient, reusable, and easy to read. This article will guide you through the fundamental definitions and applications, helping you to fully understand and utilise higher order functions to their full potential. Insightful sections like 'Array Higher Order Functions in Computer Science', 'Filter Method and Higher Order Functions' and 'Higher Order Functions in TypeScript' provide a practical application of the topic. Valuable insights about common mistakes and misconceptions will further aid you to avoid potential pitfalls. For the programmers aiming to expand their skills, an exclusive section dedicated to 'Comprehensive Guide to Higher Order Functions Examples' enriches your knowledge matrix. By the end of this guide, you can confidently employ higher order functions, select appropriate types of functions, and accurately implement them in your code. This knowledge will undoubtedly prove instrumental in your journey as a skilled computer science enthusiast.

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## Introduction to Higher Order Functions

Scratching your brain over the term 'Higher Order Functions'? No worries, you're at the right place! Higher Order Functions are a fundamental part of computer science, and more specifically in the world of functional programming.

### Defining Higher Order Functions

Higher Order Functions or HOFs, as they are often abbreviated, have two main characteristics:

• They can take one or more functions as parameters
• They can return a function as a result

This concept can be useful in a plethora of different situations when you're coding, causing your code to be more modular, readable, and reusable.

A Higher Order Function is a function that can accept another function as argument or that can return a new function.

#### Important Higher Order Functions Definitions

When discussing higher order functions, a few crucial definitions are essential to understand:

• First-Class Functions: In some programming languages, functions are considered first-class citizens, meaning they can be passed as arguments to other functions, returned from other functions, and can be assigned to variables.
• Callback Functions: These are functions that are passed as arguments to higher order functions.

For instance, in JavaScript, you can define a callback function like this: function exampleCallback() { console.log('This is a callback function'); }. You can then use this function as an argument in a higher order function.

### When to use Higher Order Functions

Now that we know what higher order functions are, when should they be used? Essentially, higher order functions are used when you want to:

• Create more abstract functions.
• Create functor for operations like map, filter, and fold which can transform data structures.

Generally, higher order functions can make code more concise, easier to read, and more elegant.

## Situational Examples of Higher Order Functions

To make higher order functions clearer, let's examine some detailed examples of how and when these functions can be put to practical use in coding.

For instance, in Python, the map() function is a higher order function because it takes a function as a parameter and applies it to every element of a sequence, producing a new sequence. Here is an example of using the map function in Python: nums = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] squares = list(map(lambda x: x ** 2, nums)). Another common example of a higher order function is the filter() function in JavaScript, which creates a new array with all elements that pass the test implemented by the provided function.

So there you have it, a comprehensive guide to higher order functions. Feel free to return to this guide anytime you need a refresher.

## Array Higher Order Functions in Computer Science

An exciting aspect of Higher Order Functions you'll often come across in computer science, particularly in functional programming languages like JavaScript, is their ability to operate on arrays. Becoming proficient in the manipulation of arrays with higher order functions can greatly streamline and enhance your code.

### Understanding Array Higher Order Functions

Higher order functions that work on arrays are used to perform operations on an entirety of elements in the given array. These functions can help you to iterate through arrays, apply a function to each component, filter elements, or reduce an array to a single value. It's noteworthy to highlight certain higher order functions that are proven to be particularly beneficial when dealing with arrays:

• map() - Transforms every element in the array using the function provided and returns a new array.
• filter() - Returns a new array consisting of elements that pass a particular condition.
• reduce() - Reduces an array to a single value using a reducer function and returns that value.

These functions return a new array and do not modify the original array. This is closely related to one of the principles of functional programming: immutability.

Immutability, in the context of functional programming, is a concept that states that once a variable or object is created, it can't be changed. This means, all functions are 'pure', and do not cause side effects, thereby increasing code reliability and predictability.

### Practical Array Higher Order Functions Examples

To better appreciate the utility and power of array higher order functions, let's discuss a few practical examples.

Suppose you have an array of numbers: nums = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. If you want to double each number in the array, you can utilise the map() function in the following way:

let doubledNums = nums.map(num => num * 2);

If you want to filter out all odd numbers from the array, the filter() function would be a good choice:

let evenNums = nums.filter(num => num % 2 === 0);

The reduce() function can be used to get the sum of all numbers in the array:

let sum = nums.reduce((accum, num) => accum + num, 0);

### Benefits of Using Array Higher Order Functions

Higher order functions provide numerous advantages, especially when used with arrays. Here are some of the benefits:

• Abstraction: Higher order functions allow for more abstract, readable code. Without them, iterating over arrays would require manually written loops, which can clutter code and make it less readable.
• Immutability: As they return new data structures instead of modifying existing ones, higher order functions align well with the principles of functional programming, including immutability.
• Code Reusability and Composition: Higher order functions can be written to be generic and reusable. They can also be composed, meaning the output of one function can be used as an input for another.

Many libraries and tools built for JavaScript, such as React and Redux, are designed with a functional style in mind. Therefore, understanding higher order functions, and how to use them with arrays, can make working with these tools more intuitive and productive.

## Common Mistakes When Implementing Array Higher Order Functions

Although array higher order functions are powerful, they can also introduce bugs into your code if not used carefully. Here are a few common pitfalls to watch out for:

• Not returning a value: With the exception of forEach(), all array higher order functions expect the callback function to return a value.
• Heterogeneous arrays: Higher order functions applied correctly on arrays holding the same data type may bring unexpected results on arrays with different data types. Always ensure data uniformity or implement type checking before processing arrays.

For instance, failing to return a value from the callback function in a map() operation will result in a new array, but it will be filled with undefined values.

let nums = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
let mistake = nums.map(num => {});
console.log(mistake); // prints [undefined, undefined, undefined, undefined, undefined]

Remember, practising and understanding these function fundamentals will build a strong foundation for your future work in functional programming and generally in computer science. Happy coding!

## Filter Method and Higher Order Functions

In the world of computer science, particularly when dealing with arrays, you'll quickly become familiar with a certain higher order function known by the moniker of 'filter'. This function performs operations on arrays, testing each element against a condition you specify and creating a new array that only includes the elements that satisfy said condition.

### Introduction to Filter Higher Order Functions

Filter is an extremely powerful higher order function utilised primarily with arrays. The gist of its operation lies in taking a testing function as its argument and applying this test to every element in the array. This testing function is expected to return either true or false. You'd receive, as resulting output, a new array composed of only those elements for which the testing function returned true. Importantly, the filter function does not alter the original array, adhering to the principle of immutability.

The filter method in JavaScript syntax can be defined as:

let filteredArray = array.filter(callback(element[, index[, array]])[, thisArg])
where the callback is a function to test each element of the array. The callback function could return either true or false. The filter method then constructs a new array from all elements that return true. The element is the current item in the array, index is the index of the current element being processed, and the array refers to the array filter was called upon.

This method is a more declarative and readable way to filter elements in an array, as it abstracts the implementation details such as iterating through an array and pushing elements that pass the test to a new array.

Understanding, correctly using, and effectively leveraging the filter method in your programming design, will reinforce your approach to coding, making it more efficient, robust, and in line with the principles of functional programming.

### Examples of using Filter Higher Order Functions

To more tangibly grasp the working of the filter higher order function, let's delve into a few actual examples.

Here is an example of a filter function being used to create a new array that consists of all even numbers from an existing number array:

let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10];
let evenNumbers = numbers.filter(number => number % 2 === 0);
console.log(evenNumbers); // prints [2, 4, 6, 8, 10]

Here the filter function is invoked on the numbers array. It uses an arrow function that checks if a number modulo 2 equals 0 (a fast way to verify if a number is even). The result is a new array, evenNumbers, that consists of only the even numbers from the original array.

### Proper Application of Filter Higher Order Functions

While the filter function is highly versatile and beneficial, it's crucial to apply it correctly and judiciously to truly leverage its potential. The most important consideration is the callback function that serves as the argument for the filter function. This callback needs to act as a testing function and is expected to return a boolean value. If a non-boolean value is returned, JavaScript will coerce it to a boolean, which can lead to unexpected results. Always ensure your callback function returns a true or false value to prevent inadvertent type coercion.

Another important point to keep in mind is that the filter function doesn't modify the existing array. If you need the original array to be modified, filter may not be the right choice. On the other hand, if you need to keep the original array unchanged, filter is an excellent choice that adheres to principles of immutability.

Here's another example that showcases the usage of filter with a more complex data structure, an array of objects:

let employees = [
{ name: 'Alice', department: 'Engineering' },
{ name: 'Bob', department: 'Accounting' },
{ name: 'Charlie', department: 'Engineering' }];
let engineers = employees.filter(employee => employee.department === 'Engineering');
console.log(engineers); // prints [{ name: 'Alice', department: 'Engineering' }, { name: 'Charlie', department: 'Engineering' }]

The filter function is an effective and declarative way to manipulate arrays according to specific requirements. By using it rightly, you can create more readable, efficient, and maintainable code.

## Higher Order Functions in TypeScript

TypeScript, a statically typed superset of JavaScript, shares many of its functional programming features, one of which is the ability to utilise higher order functions. TypeScript adds strict types to JavaScript, a feature that can provide developers with robust type checking, autocompletion, and type inference for higher order functions.

### Understanding Higher Order Functions in TypeScript

In TypeScript, higher order functions maintain the same capabilities as in JavaScript, with the added advantages of static typing. This means that, in addition to taking a function as argument or returning a function, you have the ability to specify the types of these input and output functions.

In essence, a Higher Order function in TypeScript is a function that either takes one or more functions as parameters, returns a function as a result, or both. These parameters and return types can all be strictly typed.

TypeScript's static typing system comprises some exceptionally expressive type declarations that can be utilised with higher order functions. One useful feature to handle function types is the arrow notation, similar to how you would express an arrow function. For instance, the function type (a: number, b: number) => number indicates a function that takes two numbers as parameters and returns a number.

Now, let's discuss how to assign function types to variables.

See the following example:

let add: (x: number, y: number) => number;
add = (a, b) => a + b;
let result = add(1, 2);  // result == 3

In this example, the variable add is assigned a function type that takes two numbers and returns a number. Note that when the variable is assigned an arrow function, TypeScript can infer the types of the parameters a and b, so you don't have to provide them explicitly.

The ability to assign function types to variables makes it easier to work with higher order functions, as you can declare the type of the function you expect as a parameter. It also provides autocompletion and type checking within the body of the function.

TypeScript's static type feature makes it a powerful tool for writing maintainable and self-documenting code. The code is cleaner, 'safer', and generally easier to read and understand.

#### Different Types and Uses of Higher Order Functions in TypeScript

In TypeScript, there are several scenarios where higher order functions can prove to be useful. But first, let's understand certain types of higher order functions.

TypeScript distinguishes between various types of higher order functions. Some higher order functions take a function as a parameter, while others return a function, and some do both. Each of these function "types" can be useful in different scenarios.

Here is an example of a higher order function that takes a function as a parameter:

function logTwice(f: () => void) {
f();
f();
}

This function accepts a function that doesn't take any parameters and doesn't return any value (indicated with the () => void type). It then executes this function twice. This is a neat trick for repeating an operation without code duplication.

Here is an example of a higher order function that returns a function:

function makeMultiplier(factor: number): (n: number) => number {
return (n: number) => n * factor;
}
let doubler = makeMultiplier(2);
console.log(doubler(5));  // prints 10

In this example, the makeMultiplier function takes a number (the factor by which to multiply) and returns a new function that takes a number and returns a number. This function can be stored in a variable and called later, providing a highly flexible way to create functions dynamically.

Lastly, it's possible to create higher order functions that both take a function as a parameter and return a new function. It can be effectively used when you want to augment the behaviour of a function. For example, you can create an withLogging function that logs each call to the console:

function withLogging any>(f: T): T {
return ((...args: Parameters): ReturnType => {
console.log(Calling function with args ${args}); return f(...args); }) as T; } let addWithLogging = withLogging(add); let result = addWithLogging(1, 2); // logs "Calling function with args 1,2", result == 3 ### Common Misconceptions about Higher Order Functions in TypeScript In TypeScript, one common misconception about higher order functions is that they lead to slower performing code. In reality, however, any potential slowdown would be barely noticeable in most applications. Performance is rarely a good reason not to use higher order functions, and the readability and composability benefits they afford often vastly outweigh any negligible performance costs. Another misconception is that higher order functions have complex typings and are difficult to understand or maintain. While it's true that the types can get complex when dealing with higher order functions, TypeScript provides a range of tools to manage this complexity. These include the utility types Parameters and ReturnType, which can fetch the parameter types and return type of a function type T. This makes it possible to create higher order functions with strict types without explicitly declaring all the types. Note that TypeScript doesn't support higher kinded types, a type system feature which allows abstraction over higher order types. This means you can't write a generic function that operates on any function, regardless of its parameter or return types. You must at least specify the number of parameters in the function type in order to use it in TypeScript. ### Examples of Higher Order Functions in TypeScript While higher order functions can initially seem abstract and theoretical, they come alive when you see them in action. Let's examine some powerful, illustrative examples of higher order functions used in TypeScript. Let's start with a simple example of using the Array's map() function in TypeScript: let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]; let squaredNumbers = numbers.map((n: number) => n * n); console.log(squaredNumbers); // prints [1, 4, 9, 16, 25] In this example, map() is a higher order function that applies a function to each element of the array. The function it applies is an arrow function that takes a number and returns its square. The types of the arrow function parameters and return value are inferred by TypeScript. Let’s explore a more complex example. Suppose there's an array of employee records and you want to find any employees who are in the Engineering department and have a name that starts with 'J'. You can accomplish this with a combination of higher order functions filter() and startsWith():  interface Employee { name: string; department: string; } let employees: Employee[] = [ { name: 'Bob', department: 'Accounting' }, { name: 'Alice', department: 'Engineering' }, { name: 'Jamal', department: 'Engineering' }, // more employees... ]; let engineeringJs = employees .filter(e => e.department === 'Engineering') .filter(e => e.name.startsWith('J')); console.log(engineeringJs); // prints [{ name: 'Jamal', department: 'Engineering' }]  In this example, the filter function is applied twice. First, to get all the employees in Engineering, and then again to get only the engineers whose name starts with J. By chaining these higher order functions, a complex operation becomes a concise, declarative expression. In conclusion, higher order functions are a versatile tool in TypeScript for abstracting patterns, writing reusable code, and adopting a functional style of programming. Understanding these functions is therefore a valuable step forward in your TypeScript journey. ## Comprehensive Guide to Higher Order Functions Examples One of the best ways to grasp the concept and utility of higher order functions is by exploring examples. When it comes to practical programming, concrete examples often clarify the abstract notions and help cement the understanding of higher order functions. Let's dive into some in-depth and real-life examples. ### In-Depth Higher Order Functions Examples Exploring examined examples always paves the way for clear understanding. By combing through various higher order function examples in detail, you can glean a more robust insight into their usage and practical application. Higher order function examples are prevalent throughout the programming languages ecosystem. The following examples illustrate how higher order functions can make code easier to understand, more modular and reusable by abstracting over actions, not just values. The following JavaScript example focuses on an everyday problem - filtering out spam emails. You could have an array of email objects, each with a subject property. The filter() higher order function can be used to create a new array of emails that do not contain the word "spam" in the subject line:  const emails = [ { subject: 'Get rich now!', body: 'Earn money fast...' }, { subject: 'Discounted flight tickets', body: 'Buy now...' }, { subject: 'Important - please read', body: 'Dear customer...' }, { subject: 'Meet spam free singles', body: 'Find love...' } ]; const nonSpamEmails = emails.filter(email => !email.subject.includes('spam')); console.log(nonSpamEmails); // Prints the objects without the word 'spam' present in the subject property  Here the filter() method creates a new array of emails, where each email does not include the word "spam" in the subject line. This is a clear example of the power of higher order functions - with one line of code, you have filtered out undesired elements from your array. ### Examining Real-Life Higher Order Functions Examples While theoretical examples are useful in understanding the core functionality of higher order functions, nothing beats real-world examples for truly consolidating your understanding. Such examples provide you with practical applications of higher order functions and show you why they are critical in simplifying complex programming tasks. Let's take an example from the field of web development. Say you have an array of user objects, each with a name, email, and subscription status. You want to send a newsletter to each subscribed user:  const users = [ { name: 'Alice', email: 'alice@example.com', isSubscribed: true }, { name: 'Bob', email: 'bob@example.com', isSubscribed: false }, { name: 'Charlie', email: 'charlie@example.com', isSubscribed: true }, ]; const sendNewsletter = (email) => console.log(Newsletter sent to${email});


In this example, you are using the filter() method to create a new array of users who are subscribed. Then, you use the forEach() method (another higher order function!) to send the newsletter to each subscribed user. This demonstrates how higher order functions can be chained to perform complex operations with little code.

### Learning from Higher Order Functions Examples

Examples, we know, serve as a solid foundation for learning. By understanding a range of higher order function examples across different programming languages, one can truly appreciate their usefulness and make them a part of their regular coding process. Whether it's mapping data or filtering values, higher order functions play a significant role in software development.

Let's further your understanding by viewing examples across different programming languages:

• JavaScript: Array manipulation methods like map(), filter(), and reduce() are some of the most frequently used higher order functions in JavaScript.
• Python: Functions such as map(), filter(), reduce(), and apply() are common examples of higher order functions in Python. Additionally, Python supports the concept of decorators which are also a type of higher order function.
• Swift: Swift, the language commonly used for iOS development, also supports higher order functions and provides several built-in examples such as map(), reduce() and filter().

Here's an example in Swift, demonstrating the usage of the map() function:


let numbers = [1,2,3,4,5]
let squaredNumbers = numbers.map { $0 *$0 }
print(squaredNumbers) // Prints [1, 4, 9, 16, 25]


In this example, the map function is used to square each number in the array.

Higher-order functions can sometimes seem complex, particularly when first encountered. Although it may take a while to wrap your head around them, it's worth the effort. By developing comfort and familiarity with higher order functions, you'll be well on your way to more efficient and powerful code - you'll simplify the process of manipulating data structures, improve code reuse, decrease code redundancy, and increase readability and clarity.

## Exploring Various Types of Higher Order Functions

In the domain of higher order functions, certain categorisations become apparent based on the characteristics and roles these functions play. Distinguishing among various types of these functions and understanding their diverse capabilities are essential steps on your journey of mastering computer science's functional programming aspects.

### Categories of Higher Order Functions

On a broad level, higher order functions can be primarily classified into three categories:

• Functions that accept a function as an argument
• Functions that return a function
• Functions that both accept a function as an argument and return a function

The first category centers on higher order functions which take in one or more functions as arguments. These arguments, often termed 'callback functions', are called when required, enabling the higher order function to exhibit dynamic behaviour depending on the callback's behaviour.

The second category involves higher order functions that leverage the power to generate functions and use them as output. These functions aid in creating code more dynamically, often resulting in high adaptability.

The third category is the most flexible, featuring higher order functions which take a function as an argument and return a function as well. Such functions are the mainstays behind some very powerful programming techniques such as decorators and function composition.

#### Detailed Explanation of Higher Order Functions Types

Now, let's explore these categories of higher order functions in detail to understand their specifications, usage, and benefits.

Consider the JavaScript Array.prototype.map() method, an example of the first category. This function accepts a callback function as a parameter and executes it for each array element:

let numbers = [1, 2, 3];
let squares = numbers.map(function(num) { return num * num });
// squares would be [1, 4, 9]

As is clear from the example, the Array.prototype.map() method acts on the numbers array, and for each element of the array, it calls the provided function to calculate the square of the number. The results are returned in a new array.

Coming to the second category, these kinds of functions, instead of executing a passed function, generate new functions based on the input provided and return them. A common instance of this is the function constructor. An example of a higher order function of this type could be a function factory that creates and returns functions:

In the JavaScript example below, makeAdder() is a factory function that creates new 'adder' functions:

function makeAdder(x) {
return function(y) {
return x + y;
};
}

console.log(add10(2)); // 12

In this example, the function makeAdder() creates and returns a new function that adds a pre-specified number to its argument.

Lastly, the third category higher order functions are versatile, accepting a function as an argument and returning a new function. Decorators in Python and middleware in Express.js are practical examples of this type. They allow us to dynamically alter the input, output, or functionality of a function.

Consider this Python decorator example:


def trace(f):
def wrap(*args, **kwargs):
print(f"Trace: calling {f.__name__}() "
f"with {args}, {kwargs}")
result = f(*args, **kwargs)
print(f"Trace: {f.__name__}() "
f"returned {result!r}")
return result
return wrap

@trace
def greet(name):
return f"Hello {name}"

print(greet("Bob"))


The trace() decorator is a higher order function that logs the activity of the function it's applied to. In this case, it's altering the behaviour of the greet() function by adding logging functionality before and after the function's operation.

### Benefits of Different Types of Higher Order Functions

Each category of higher order functions offers its unique benefits and efficiencies. Depending:

• The ones that take a function as an argument allow performing operations on a variety of functions without code repetition, thus enhancing code reusability.
• Higher order functions that return a function promote dynamic function generation, supporting a high level of coding adaptability.
• Finally, those that both accept and return functions provide flexibility in altering any function's output, input, or behaviour dynamically.

#### How to Choose the Right Type of Higher Order Functions

Choosing the right type of higher order function depends heavily on the problem you're tackling. Here are some general guidelines:

• If you have a list of items to process in specific ways at different times, use higher order functions that take a function as an argument. This is a common scenario when working with arrays and timers in JavaScript.
• If you need to generate functions dynamically based on some parameters, use higher order functions that return a function. A practical example is constructing event handlers for elements in a web application.
• If you need to enhance or modify a function's behaviour without changing its code, use a higher order function that both takes and returns a function. Such a requirement often arises when implementing decorators in Python or middleware in Express.js.

Understanding the requirements and prerequisites of your use case will guide your choice of higher order function type. With practice, you'll gain the required intuition to decide which type of higher order function to utilise in different coding scenarios.

## Higher Order Functions - Key takeaways

• Higher Order Functions (HOFs) are an essential concept in Computer Science, particularly in functional programming. They can take one or more functions as parameters and can return a function as a result, making code more modular, readable, and reusable.

• Two key elements of HOFs include: First-Class Functions which can be passed as arguments, returned from other functions, or assigned to variables; and Callback Functions, which are passed as arguments to higher order functions.

• The 'Array Higher Order Functions in Computer Science' section discusses functions that operate on arrays in functional programming languages, such as JavaScript's map(), filter(), and reduce(). Understanding these functions can enhance code manipulation of arrays.

• Immutability is a key concept in functional programming meaning that once a variable or object is created, it can't be changed. This is closely related to the use of higher order functions that return a new array and do not modify the original array.

• The 'Filter Method and Higher Order Functions' section illustrates the use of filter, a common HOF, that creates a new array including only elements satisfying a specified condition. Using filter can lead to more efficient, robust, and declarative code.

#### Flashcards in Higher Order Functions 18

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What is a higher order function?

A higher-order function is a function that can either take one or more functions as arguments, return a function as a result, or both. This concept stems from mathematics and is a central part of programming paradigms, especially functional programming. In other words, higher-order functions greatly augment the expressiveness of our programming language in a very flexible way. This term helps to distinguish functions which have other functions as parameters or that return functions from other varieties of data.
Is list higher order function?
Yes, 'list' can be used in the context of a higher-order function. A higher-order function is one which takes one or more functions as arguments, or returns a function as output. 'List' becomes a higher-order function when you're performing operations such as mapping, filtering, or reducing, where a function is passed as a parameter to be applied to the elements of the list.

What is a higher order function in functional programming?

In functional programming, a higher order function is a function that either takes one or more functions as arguments or returns a function as a result. This means it operates on other functions, either by accepting them as inputs or producing them as outputs. This concept allows for functions to be manipulated just like any other data type, offering flexibility in how programmers can write their code. It's the cornerstone of concepts like map, reduce, filter, function composition and function chaining.

Why are they called higher order functions?

They are called higher order functions because they operate on functions, applications, and actions, which fall into a 'higher order' in type hierarchy. This means these functions can accept other functions as arguments, and/or return functions as results, offering another level of abstraction in programming. They are named 'higher order' due to this ability to manipulate 'higher' forms of data. This term originates from mathematics' higher order derivatives.

What are some examples of higher order functions?

Examples of higher order functions include map(), filter(), and reduce() in JavaScript, which can operate on other functions. For instance, map() can iterate through an array and apply a function to every element, filter() can select certain elements based on the return value of a function, and reduce() can combine array elements using a function. In Python, similarly, functions like sorted(), max() and min() can take a function as an argument to perform complex sorting. Then there are also function decorators and callback functions, both of which utilise higher order functions.

## Test your knowledge with multiple choice flashcards

How are function types assigned to variables in TypeScript?

What are First-Class Functions in programming languages?

What are the main characteristics of Higher Order Functions (HOFs)?

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