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Evaluating Total Quality Management

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Evaluating Total Quality Management

Quality is never an accident. It is always the result of intelligent effort."

- John Ruskin

Total quality management offers the quality assurance that consumers will receive what they anticipate, also the process to manage unhappy consumers, make required modifications and avoid related reoccurrences. TQM has increasingly become popular over the decades. In this article, we will find out the evolution of quality management, history and evaluation of TQM, elements of TQM, and evaluation tools of TQM.

Total quality management is a process that makes sure that all the work targets a mutual objective to improve product/service quality.

What are the stages of evolution of quality management?

It is easy to assume that quality management is precisely a contemporary phenomenon. In reality, some of the main notions of quality control can be trailed back to the 13th century where the strict product quality standards were established, when conforming products were marked with a distinct sign by the inspection teams. Quality control procedures continued to be used for centuries and were rooted in several systems during the industrial development from the middle of the 1700s to the beginning of the 19th century.

Quality management systems, as we know them today, began to develop in the 1920s with the introduction of statistical sampling procedures in quality control practices, founded by Walter A. Shewhart. At this time a constantly increasing demand for better productivity showed a breakdown in quality control, it became obvious that there is a need to create a more vigorous, structured, and reasonable methodology to quality. Critically, this would mean there should be a change from simple end products examinations to the creation of quality practices designed to actively avoid defects and imperfections by executing inspections and controls initially in the production process.

The modern transformation of quality started in the 1970s when the quality of the products from Japan outshined those of the USA and Europe. Therefore, the action was taken to prevent the inequity and the 1980s had a huge focus on improvement of quality in addition to the implementation of new methods for instance, Just in time. By the 1990s, quality improvement practices had proven to be successful in production. The 2000s showed the mixture of Lean and Six sigma, in addition to the continuous improvement methods.

History and Evaluation of TQM

History of TQM

Prior to the concept and notion of TQM being formalized, a lot of work was done over the centuries to get to this stage.

The 1920s: some of the first steps towards quality management were taken during this time

The 1930s: Walter Shewhart established the process for statistical analysis and quality control

The 1950s:

  • W. Edwards Deming taught the processes for statistical analysis and quality control to Japanese engineers and managers. This can be regarded as the foundation and origin of TQM.

  • Armand V. Feigenbaum wrote a book ‘Total quality control’ was published which contributed to the current understanding of TQM

  • Philip B. Crosby promoted the zero-defect approach which levelled the way for quality improvement in several organizations

1968: The Japanese titled their method from total quality ‘company-wide quality control’. It was at this period that the term ‘quality management system’ appeared.

Today: TQM is the term for the philosophy of a comprehensive systematic approach to managing organizational quality.

Evaluation of TQM

Total quality management is absolutely essential in organizations today. It is vital for organizations to attain customer satisfaction. Hence, there has been a greater emphasis on surpassing the expectations of its internal customers prior to dealing with the requirements to satisfy its external customers. The data collected from these customers will then present a parameter that will assist the organization to make alterations as a result. TQM, especially in manufacturing organizations, provides assurance in the quality of the product. Having implemented TQM during the production of the product can facilitate the organization to make a product that works precisely as it states. TQM will lower costs and therefore, raise its competitive edge over its competitors.

In addition, the waste level can be reduced through TQM in manufacturing organizations. By the means of improved processes, organizations will be able to produce products with few waste costs and accomplish good profit margins.

On the contrary, the argument presented is that these programs may lack their impulse over the period of time. TQM should not be considered as a replacement for the responsibility of regular managerial leadership. It is significant to understand that inefficient managers are not made better merely by implementing TQM. TQM is not an add-on of the organization; instead, it should be incorporated with an undifferentiated from daily activities. Diverse organizations will have unalike needs based on their circumstances. TQM should be modified to these circumstances.

What are the elements of Total Quality Management?

Total Quality Management was created to define a philosophy that makes quality an impelling force behind planning, leadership, improvement design. For this reason, TQM has eight key elements which are divided into four different groups as follows:

What are the elements of Total Quality Management?, TQM key elements, StudysmarterFigure 1. TQM key elements, StudySmarter

1. The basis of the group is integrity and ethics

2. The second group is building blocks including training, teamwork, and leadership

3. The third group in the connecting element is communication

4. The fourth group on the top is recognition

Ethics

Ethics is the discipline related to good and bad in any circumstance. Organizational ethics develop a business code that highlights the principles that all employees should follow in the execution of their work.

Integrity

Integrity denotes honesty, uprightness, fairness, and morality. Its feature is what customers assume and deserve to get, be it the internal or external customers.

Training

Training is highly significant for employees in order to be productive. Managers are only in charge of implementing TQM in their departments and educating their employees about the philosophies of TQM. Training that employees need is problem-solving, interpersonal and technical skills, etc. Through the development and implementation of TQM, employees are trained in order to make them efficient employees for the organization.

Teamwork

In order to become fruitful in business, the main element of TQM is teamwork. With the help of teams, the organization will obtain a faster and improved solution to the problems. In teams, employees feel confident to bring up any problem that might happen and may get assistance from other employees to find a solution.

Leadership

Leadership is the main element of TQM. Leadership in TQM needs supervisors to offer a stimulating vision, develop plans that all the employees understand, and infuse values that direct subordinates. For TQM to be fruitful, the leadership should understand TQM, have faith in it, and then exhibit their commitment and confidence in their everyday practices of TQM.

Communication

Communication connects everything together. Beginning from the basis to the top of the TQM elements, everything is attached by a strong link of communication. It means that there is a general understanding of ideas amongst the sender and receiver. For communication to be reliable the message should be clear and is understood the way the sender meant.

Recognition

Recognition is the last element of TQM. It should be given for recommendations and accomplishments for individuals and also teams. When employees are recognized, there will be a great change in efficiency, productivity, self-esteem, dedication to improving quality.

What are the evaluation tools of total quality management in business organizations?

Some of the tools used to evaluate TQM includes the Pareto principle (see Figure 2 below).

What are the evaluation tools of total quality management in business organizations? , Pareto principle, StudysmarterFigure 2. Pareto principle, StudySmarter

The Pareto principle presents that most consequences come from comparatively only some causes, i.e., 80 percent of the issues come from 10 percent of the causes (for instance, raw material, machinery, etc.). Hence, work done towards this 20 percent of the cause can solve 80 percent of the problem. This chart can be used for the comparison of prior and subsequent situations.

Flowcharts

What are the evaluation tools of total quality management in business organizations? , Flowcharts, StudysmarterFigure 3. Flowchart, StudySmarter

Figure 3 shows an example of a flowchart. Images, symbols, or text combined with lines and arrows depict the direction of the flow. It allows process modelling and models issues/opportunities and shows points where decisions can be made. It creates a general understanding of the process.

Histogram

What are the evaluation tools of total quality management in business organizations?, Histogram, StudysmarterFigure 4. Histogram, StudySmarter

A histogram is a graphic abstract of fluctuations in the data.

Figure 4 shows an example of a histogram. It allows finding patterns that otherwise are hard to find in tables of numbers. It can be analyzed to extract conclusions about the data.

Evaluating Total Quality Management - Key takeaways

  • The development of a quality management system practised today began in the 1920s after the introduction of statistical sampling procedures by Walter A. Shewhart.

  • In the 1950s, W. Edwards Deming taught the processes for statistical analysis and quality control to Japanese engineers and managers. This can be regarded as the foundation and origin of TQM.

  • TQM is vital for organizations to attain customer satisfaction.

  • Implementation of TQM during the production of the product can facilitate the organization to make a product that works precisely as it states.

  • TQM should not be considered as a replacement for the responsibility of regular managerial leadership.

Frequently Asked Questions about Evaluating Total Quality Management

TQM is evaluated on the basis of factors such as customer satisfaction, quality assurance, waste reduction, etc. 

The 5 important factors of TQM are:
Customer-centric, effective control, process improvement, quality improvement culture, and employee commitment. 

Total quality management tools and techniques are:

Pareto principle, flowchart, and histogram. 

Final Evaluating Total Quality Management Quiz

Question

When did the evolution of quality management start?


Show answer

Answer

Some of the main notions of quality control can be trailed back to the 13th century where strict product quality standards were established.

Show question

Question

Who introduced the statistical sampling procedures?


Show answer

Answer

 It was introduced by Walter A. Shewhart.

Show question

Question

Why was there a need for a quality management system?


Show answer

Answer

In the 1920s a constantly increasing demand for better productivity showed a breakdown in quality control, it became obvious that there is a need to create a more vigorous, structured, and reasonable methodology to quality.

Show question

Question

When did the modern transformation of quality management systems start?


Show answer

Answer

The modern transformation of quality started in the 1970s when the quality of the products from Japan outshined those of the USA and Europe.

Show question

Question

When was the foundation of TQM laid?


Show answer

Answer

In the 1950s, W. Edwards Deming taught the processes for statistical analysis and quality control to Japanese engineers and managers. This can be regarded as the foundation and origin of TQM.

Show question

Question

What is the term used to define quality control by the Japanese?


Show answer

Answer

The Japanese titled their method from total quality ‘company-wide quality control’. It was at this period that the term ‘quality management system’ appeared.

Show question

Question

 Why is TQM important for organizations?


Show answer

Answer

Total quality management is absolutely essential in organizations today. It is vital for organizations to attain customer satisfaction. Also implementing TQM during the production of the product can facilitate the organization to make a product that works precisely as it states.

Show question

Question

What is the criticism regarding TQM?


Show answer

Answer

The argument presented is that these programs may lack their impulse over a period of time. TQM is not an add-on of the organization; instead, it should be incorporated with and undifferentiated from daily activities.

Show question

Question

 What is the foundation of TQM elements?

Show answer

Answer

The foundation is ethics and integrity.

Show question

Question

What is the significance of ethics and integrity?


Show answer

Answer

Ethics is the discipline related to good and bad in any circumstance. Integrity denotes fairness and Its feature is what customers assume and deserve to get.

Show question

Question

What are the building blocks of the TQM group of elements?


Show answer

Answer

The building blocks include training, teamwork, and leadership.

Show question

Question

Why is communication also an important element in TQM?


Show answer

Answer

Communication connects everything together. It means that there is a general understanding of ideas amongst the sender and receiver.

Show question

Question

What is the role of leadership in TQM?


Show answer

Answer

Leadership is the main element of TQM. Leadership in TQM needs supervisors to offer a stimulating vision, develop plans that all the employees understand, and infuse values that direct subordinates.

Show question

Question

 Why is it important to give recognition to employees?


Show answer

Answer

When employees are recognized, there will be a great change in efficiency, productivity, self-esteem, dedication to improving quality.

Show question

Question

What are the tools used to evaluate TQM?


Show answer

Answer

The tools used are the Pareto principle, flowcharts, bar charts, cause and effect diagrams, etc.

Show question

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