# SQL Numeric

In the realm of computer science, understanding SQL Numeric data types is essential when dealing with databases. As a foundational concept, numeric values play a vital role in organising, optimising, and analysing data in various database systems. This article introduces the importance of numeric values in databases and provides an overview of basic numeric data types in SQL. Gain comprehensive knowledge of SQL numeric types, working with numeric value expressions, SQL numerical functions, and practical examples and applications of SQL numeric data manipulation. Furthermore, learn best practices for handling SQL numeric data, including choosing the appropriate data type, optimising queries, and handling null values and constraints. So, let's embark on this insightful journey to better grasp SQL Numeric data types and their applications.

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## Introduction to Numeric Values in SQL

SQL Numeric values are essential components of databases, especially when handling numerical data like integer values, decimal values, and floating-point numbers. These numeric values allow efficient storage, retrieval, and manipulation of data in databases. In this section, you will learn about the importance of numeric values in databases, basic numeric data types in SQL, and how to use them effectively in your database operations.

### Importance of Numeric Values in Databases

Understanding the significance of numeric values in databases is crucial for various reasons. Numeric values play a vital role in: 1. Efficient data storage and retrieval in relational databases, ensuring optimal performance. 2. Representing a wide range of numerical data, from small integers to large floating-point numbers. 3. Facilitating mathematical calculations and aggregations, such as totals, averages, and sums. 4. Enabling complex queries involving numerical comparisons, sorting, and filtering. 5. Accurate representation of currency values, percentages, and scientific notations.

When working with databases, choosing the appropriate numeric data type can significantly impact the storage efficiency and query performance. It is always essential to understand different numeric data types and their capabilities to make an informed decision based on your specific requirements.

#### Basic Numeric Data Types in SQL

SQL language supports a variety of numeric data types depending on the specific database system you are using. However, some of the common basic numeric data types include: 1. INTEGER: Integer data types store whole numbers without any decimal places. Examples of integer data types are:
 SMALLINT INT BIGINT Range : -32,768 to 32,767 Range : -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 Range : -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036,854,775,807
2. DECIMAL & NUMERIC: Decimal and Numeric data types can store fixed-point numbers, including the integer and a specified number of fractional digits. The precision and scale of these data types can be defined when creating the table. For example, the DECIMAL data type with a precision of 10 and a scale of 2 can store numbers ranging from -99,999,999.99 to 99,999,999.99. 3. FLOAT & REAL: Float and Real data types can store floating-point numbers with approximate precision. They are suitable for values like scientific notations and large numbers with a fraction part. However, they may not provide accurate results for precise arithmetic operations like in financial calculations.

Here's an example of creating a table with numeric data types in SQL:

CREATE TABLE products (
id INT PRIMARY KEY,
name VARCHAR(255),
price DECIMAL(10, 2),
weight FLOAT
);
In this example, the 'id' column is of data type INT, the 'price' column is of data type DECIMAL with a precision of 10 and a scale of 2, and the 'weight' column is of data type FLOAT. This table will efficiently store and manage numeric data related to different products.

## SQL Numeric Types Explained

In this section, we will examine each of the common SQL numeric data types - INTEGER, DECIMAL, REAL, and FLOAT - and discuss their unique features and uses in detail.

### INTEGER

The INTEGER data type is used to store whole numbers without a fractional component. This data type is ideal for when you need to store and manipulate quantities, such as counting items or ranking positions. The INTEGER type can be further divided into three categories:

• SMALLINT
• INT
• BIGINT
Each of these categories has a distinct range, as illustrated in the table below:
 SMALLINT INT BIGINT Range: -32,768 to 32,767 Range: -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 Range: -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036,854,775,807
It is important to select the appropriate data type based on the range of values you expect to store, considering both memory efficiency and query performance.

### DECIMAL

The DECIMAL data type is used to store exact fixed-point numbers, allowing you to represent both integer and fractional components. This feature makes the DECIMAL type particularly suitable for handling financial data, such as prices and currency values. When defining a DECIMAL column, you can specify the precision and scale, which determine the total number of digits and the number of digits after the decimal point, respectively. For example, a DECIMAL(7,2) data type can store values with up to 7 digits, of which 2 digits can be after the decimal point. Example of the syntax:CREATE TABLE transactions ( id INT PRIMARY KEY, amount DECIMAL(7, 2) ); This table will store transaction amounts with a precision of 7 digits and a scale of 2 digits, which means values from -99999.99 to 99999.99 can be stored.

### REAL

The REAL data type is used to store approximate floating-point numbers, allowing representation of real numbers with varying degrees of precision. The REAL type can be useful when handling scientific data, measurements, or calculations that do not require exact precision. It is essential to note that the REAL type may cause slight inaccuracies during arithmetic operations due to the nature of floating-point representation. As a result, this data type is not suitable for financial calculations or other situations where exact precision is required. Example of the syntax: CREATE TABLE sensor_data ( id INT PRIMARY KEY, temperature REAL ); This table will store temperature measurements as approximate floating-point numbers.

### FLOAT

The FLOAT data type is similar to the REAL data type in that it stores approximate floating-point numbers. However, the FLOAT type can store a larger range of values and generally offers higher precision than the REAL type. The FLOAT data type can be ideal for representing extensive numerical data with fractional components, such as scientific notations or large measurements. As with the REAL data type, it is crucial to remember that the FLOAT type may not provide accurate results for precise arithmetic operations, and should not be used for financial calculations or other situations that demand exact precision. Example of the syntax: CREATE TABLE scientific_measurements ( id INT PRIMARY KEY, value FLOAT ); This table will store scientific measurements as approximate floating-point numbers with greater precision than the REAL data type.

## Numeric Value Expressions in SQL: Arithmetic Operators

SQL arithmetic operators are essential tools for performing calculations on numeric values within SQL queries. By applying these operators, you can compute various arithmetic operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and even modulus. This section will examine each of these operators in depth, including their syntax and usage.

The addition operator (+) in SQL is used to add two numeric values together. You can use this operator to combine quantities, calculate totals, or compute sums in your queries. Example of the syntax: SELECT price + tax AS total_cost FROM transactions; In this example, the addition operator (+) is used to calculate the 'total_cost' by adding the 'price' and 'tax' columns for each row in the 'transactions' table.

### Subtraction

The subtraction operator (-) in SQL is used to subtract one numeric value from another. You can use this operator to compute differences, calculate net amounts, or determine the change in values over time. Example of the syntax:

SELECT revenue - expenses

AS profit

FROM financials;

In this example, the subtraction operator (-) is used to calculate the 'profit' by subtracting the 'expenses' column from the 'revenue' column for each row in the 'financials' table.

### Multiplication

The multiplication operator (*) in SQL is used to multiply two numeric values together. You can use this operator to compute products, calculate totals based on the quantity and unit price, or find the area or volume by multiplying lengths and widths. Example of the syntax: SELECT quantity * unit_price AS total_price FROM order_details; In this example, the multiplication operator (*) is used to calculate the 'total_price' by multiplying the 'quantity' and 'unit_price' columns for each row in the 'order_details' table.

### Division

The division operator (/) in SQL is used to divide one numeric value by another. You can use this operator to compute ratios, determine rates, or calculate the average value of a set of numbers. Example of the syntax: SELECT total_sales / number_of_sales AS average_sale FROM sales_summary; In this example, the division operator (/) is used to calculate the 'average_sale' by dividing the 'total_sales' column by the 'number_of_sales' column for each row in the 'sales_summary' table.

### Modulus

The modulus operator (%) in SQL is used to compute the remainder after dividing one numeric value by another. This operator can be useful when you need to determine if a number is divisible by another number, or when you need to group numbers into equal-sized categories. Example of the syntax: SELECT customer_id, order_id % 3 AS order_group FROM orders; In this example, the modulus operator (%) is used to calculate the 'order_group' by dividing the 'order_id' column by 3 and getting the remainder for each row in the 'orders' table.

## SQL Numeric Functions

SQL numeric functions are built-in functions that you can use to perform mathematical operations and manipulate numeric data in your SQL queries. These functions can simplify your calculations and improve the readability of your queries. In this section, we will explore some commonly used SQL numeric functions, including ROUND, FLOOR, CEILING, ABS, and RAND.

### ROUND

The ROUND function in SQL is used to round a numeric value to a specified number of decimal places. The syntax for the ROUND function is: ROUND(value, [decimal_places]) Example of the syntax: SELECT ROUND(sales_amount, 2) AS rounded_sales FROM sales_data; In this example, the ROUND function is used to round the 'sales_amount' column to 2 decimal places for each row in the 'sales_data' table.

### FLOOR

The FLOOR function in SQL is used to round a numeric value down to the nearest integer value. The syntax for the FLOOR function is: FLOOR(value). Example of the syntax: SELECT FLOOR(average_rating) AS rounded_rating FROM product_reviews; In this example, the FLOOR function is used to round the 'average_rating' column down to the nearest integer for each row in the 'product_reviews' table.

### CEILING

The CEILING function in SQL is used to round a numeric value up to the nearest integer value. The syntax for the CEILING function is: CEILING(value). Example of the syntax: SELECT CEILING(minutes_played) AS rounded_minutes FROM game_stats; In this example, the CEILING function is used to round the 'minutes_played' column up to the nearest integer for each row in the 'game_stats' table.

### ABS

The ABS function in SQL is used to return the absolute value of a numeric value, which is the non-negative value of the input without regard to its sign. The syntax for the ABS function is: ABS(value). Example of the syntax: SELECT ABS(profit_loss) AS absolute_profit_loss FROM financials; In this example, the ABS function is used to calculate the absolute value of the 'profit_loss' column for each row in the 'financials' table, which makes all the profit_loss values non-negative.

### RAND

The RAND function in SQL is used to generate a random float value between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (exclusive). The syntax for the RAND function is: RAND(seed). The optional 'seed' parameter can be provided to produce a repeatable sequence of random numbers. Example of the syntax: SELECT RAND() AS random_number FROM products; In this example, the RAND function is used to generate a random float value between 0 and 1 for each row in the 'products' table.

## SQL Numeric Examples and Applications

When creating a table in SQL, it is essential to define the data types for each column to ensure that the database effectively stores, retrieves, and processes the data. Defining numeric data types accurately can significantly improve performance and reduce the likelihood of data inconsistencies. Here are some examples of how to create tables with numeric columns:CREATE TABLE employees ( id INT PRIMARY KEY, name VARCHAR(255), age SMALLINT, salary DECIMAL(10, 2) ); CREATE TABLE inventory ( product_id INT PRIMARY KEY, product_name VARCHAR(255), quantity_in_stock INT, unit_price DECIMAL(7, 2), weight_kg FLOAT ); In these examples, various numeric data types are used, such as INT for integers, SMALLINT for small integers, DECIMAL for fixed-point numbers, and FLOAT for floating-point numbers.

### Working with primary and foreign key relationships

Creating relationships between tables is an essential feature of relational databases. Primary keys and foreign keys play a critical role in establishing these relationships. In most cases, these keys are numeric columns in the tables that uniquely identify records and create links between related entities. For example, consider two tables, 'orders' and 'order_details'. The 'orders' table contains a primary key column 'order_id', while the 'order_details' table has a foreign key column 'order_id_fk' referring to the primary key in the 'orders' table. CREATE TABLE orders ( order_id INT PRIMARY KEY, customer_id INT, order_date DATE ); CREATE TABLE order_details ( detail_id INT PRIMARY KEY, order_id_fk INT, product_id INT, quantity INT, FOREIGN KEY (order_id_fk) REFERENCES orders(order_id) ); In this example, the primary key 'order_id' in the 'orders' table and the foreign key 'order_id_fk' in the 'order_details' table are both integers. The foreign key column 'order_id_fk' establishes a relationship between the two tables, allowing you to join them in queries based on this numeric value.

### Manipulating Numeric Data in SQL

Inserting numeric data into a table involves using the INSERT statement with appropriate values for the numeric columns. While dealing with numeric values, ensure the values correspond to the defined data types and constraints of the columns. Here's an example of inserting numeric data into a table 'products': INSERT INTO products (id, name, price, weight) VALUES (1, 'Laptop', 999.99, 3.1), (2, 'Smartphone', 899.99, 0.5), (3, 'Tablet', 499.99, 0.9); In this example, the numeric columns 'price' (DECIMAL) and 'weight' (FLOAT) are assigned numeric values that match their respective data types.

#### Updating numeric data

Updating numeric data in a table involves using the UPDATE statement with the SET clause to define the new values for the numeric columns. Here's an example of updating the 'order_details' table to increase the quantity of a specific product in an order: UPDATE order_details SET quantity = quantity + 1 WHERE detail_id = 5; In this example, the numeric column 'quantity' (INT) is incremented by 1 for the record with the 'detail_id' value of 5.

#### Querying numeric data

Querying numeric data in SQL involves using the SELECT statement with various arithmetic operators, SQL functions, or aggregation functions to perform calculations or apply filters based on numeric values. Here are some examples of querying numeric data: -- Calculate the total price for each item in the order_details table SELECT product_id, quantity, unit_price, quantity * unit_price AS total_price FROM order_details; -- Find all orders with a total amount greater than 1000 SELECT order_id, SUM(quantity * unit_price) AS total_amount FROM order_details GROUP BY order_id HAVING total_amount > 1000; In these examples, numeric values are used in calculations and filters to retrieve relevant data from the tables.

#### Deleting numeric data

Deleting numeric data in SQL involves using the DELETE statement with a WHERE clause based on numeric values to target specific records for removal. Here's an example of deleting records from the 'order_details' table where the product quantity is less than a specified threshold: DELETE FROM order_details WHERE quantity < 5; In this example, all records with a numeric quantity value less than 5 are deleted from the 'order_details' table.

## Best Practices for SQL Numeric Data

Selecting the correct numeric data type for your database columns is crucial for efficient data storage and retrieval. Factors to consider when choosing a data type include the range of values, level of precision, and context of the data (e.g., financial calculations, scientific data, or inventory quantities). By choosing the appropriate data type, you can avoid potential issues and ensure optimal performance and storage efficiency for your SQL databases.

### Optimising queries involving numeric data

To optimise queries that involve numeric data, keep the following best practices in mind: 1. Use indexing on numeric columns that are frequently used in filters, joins, or sorting operations. 2. Apply filters early in the query to reduce the number of records processed in subsequent operations. 3. Select only the required columns or aggregates, rather than returning all columns from the table. 4. Use the appropriate aggregation functions (e.g., SUM, AVG, MIN, or MAX) for specific tasks instead of implementing custom calculations. 5. Consider window functions to perform calculations over a set of rows related to the current row. Implementing these best practices will help you write efficient queries that leverage numeric data effectively.

### Handling null values and constraints

When working with numeric data in SQL, you may encounter null values or constraints such as primary keys, foreign keys, and unique keys. It is essential to handle these scenarios appropriately to maintain data integrity and prevent errors in your queries. 1. When inserting numeric data, ensure that the values abide by any primary key, foreign key, or unique key constraints defined on the columns. 2. When aggregating or calculating null values in numeric columns, be aware that SQL functions may return null or ignore null values in calculations. You can use the COALESCE or NULLIF functions to handle null values in these cases. 3. Include proper error handling or exception handling techniques in your SQL scripts to handle constraint violation exceptions or data type issues that may arise during data manipulation operations. By addressing these null values and constraint scenarios, you can maintain the integrity of your numeric data and ensure a smooth and error-free experience when working with your SQL databases.

## SQL Numeric - Key takeaways

• SQL Numeric data types play a vital role in organising, optimising, and analysing data in various database systems.

• Basic numeric data types in SQL include INTEGER, DECIMAL, FLOAT, and REAL.

• Numeric Value Expressions in SQL involve arithmetic operators (e.g., addition, subtraction, multiplication) and built-in functions (e.g., ROUND, ABS, RAND).

• SQL Numeric Examples include creating tables with numeric columns, manipulating numeric data, and best practices for handling numeric data.

• Important concepts to consider when working with SQL numeric data types: choosing the appropriate data type, optimising queries, handling null values, and constraints.

#### Flashcards in SQL Numeric 13

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How can one use numerics in SQL?
To use numeric in SQL, you define a column with the NUMERIC data type when creating or altering a table, specifying the precision and scale as necessary (e.g., NUMERIC(10, 2) for a number with 10 digits and 2 decimal places). Once defined, you can insert and manipulate numeric data in that column using standard SQL queries and functions. Furthermore, you can perform arithmetic operations and apply aggregate functions like SUM, AVG, MIN, and MAX on numeric columns.
How do you declare a numeric variable in SQL?
To declare a numeric variable in SQL, you use the DECLARE statement, followed by the variable name, data type, and initial value (optional). For example, DECLARE @myVariable INT = 10; In this example, a numeric variable named @myVariable of integer (INT) data type is declared and assigned an initial value of 10. Note that SQL Server uses the '@' symbol before variable names as a convention.
What is the numeric function in SQL?
Numeric functions in SQL are a set of built-in functions used to perform calculations and manipulate numerical data types within a database. These functions provide various mathematical operations like rounding, finding the absolute value, calculating the square root, and computing trigonometric values. They are useful when dealing with columns containing numeric data or when performing calculations within SQL queries.
What is the numeric data type?
The numeric data type is a precise numeric storage format in SQL databases, used to store numbers with a fixed number of decimal places. It allows specifying the total number of digits (precision) and the number of digits to the right of the decimal point (scale). Numeric data types are suitable for use in financial calculations, statistical analysis, and other applications that require exact numeric computations. They provide greater accuracy and precision compared to other number storage formats like float or real.
How can one obtain numeric values in SQL?
To get numeric values in SQL, use a SELECT statement with a WHERE clause to filter results based on a specific column's numeric data type. For example, if you have a table named 'employees' with a column 'salary', you can retrieve all rows with numeric salary values using the following query: SELECT * FROM employees WHERE salary IS NOT NULL;

## Test your knowledge with multiple choice flashcards

How can the RAND function be used in SQL and what is its syntax?

Which SQL data type is used to store exact fixed-point numbers, suitable for handling financial data?

What are common SQL numeric data types used when creating a table?

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