Delve into the fascinating world of Benzopyran, a paramount subject in organic chemistry. This comprehensive guide provides an in-depth exploration of Benzopyran, defining it, comparing it with its derivatives, and elucidating its pivotal role in chemistry. You'll gain insight into its structured varieties such as 2h-1-benzopyran-2-one and 2-methyl-3-nitro-2h-1-benzopyran. Moreover, the guide makes the process of Benzopyran synthesis decipherable whilst giving an overview of its practical application. Finally, you'll discover excellent Benzopyran examples that will further consolidate your understanding of this essential organic compound.

Benzopyran Benzopyran

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Table of contents

    Understanding Benzopyran in Organic Chemistry

    Benzopyran, also popularly known as chromene, is an essential compound in organic chemistry. Its rather unique name arises from two components: the prefix "benzo-" and "pyran".

    "Benzo-", well known in the chemistry field, refers to the benzene ring, a core part of the compound's molecular structure. The latter half, "pyran", pertains to a six-membered heterocyclic ring compound, characterised by an oxygen atom and five carbon atoms.

    The Basic Benzopyran Definition in Chemistry

    Benzopyran, represented by the molecular formula \( C_{9}H_{8}O \), is an organic compound. As its name suggests, it is composed of a benzene and a pyran ring. Interestingly, these two rings are not isolated; they are fused together to form a unique bicyclic structure.

    This bicyclicity is a key component in the study of benzopyran, as it significantly influences the compound's chemical behaviour and properties. For instance, it affects the compound's stability, reactivity, and its interactions with other chemical entities.

    Comparing Benzopyran with Its Derivatives

    To get a clearer picture, let's consider a few examples of benzopyran derivatives. These include significant compounds like flavones and coumarins.

    • Flavones: These compounds, endowed with a wide range of biological properties, have a secondary benzene ring fused at the 2- and 3-positions of benzopyran. The fusion results in a compound represented by \( C_{15}H_{10}O_{2} \).
    • Coumarins: These are another group of benzopyran derivatives, distinguished by the fusion of a second benzene ring at the 1- and 2-positions of the original benzopyran structure.

    Importance of Benzopyran in Chemistry

    Benzopyran is not just a compound; it's a structure that confers interesting properties on the compounds it forms. This aromatic heterocycle is found in numerous natural products, often bearing significant biological activity.

    If you've enjoyed a fragrant herbal tea or marvelled at the fluorescent colours of certain insects, you've encountered the chemistry of benzopyran!

    Various Applications of Benzopyran in Chemical Studies

    MedicineBenzopyrans, especially its derivatives, have been studied for potential therapeutic effects against a range of diseases - including cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorders.
    BiochemistrySome benzopyran derivatives occur naturally in plants and serve important roles in plant biochemistry.
    AgricultureThere has been interest in benzopyran-based pesticides due to their ability to disrupt insect growth.

    Today, the research into benzopyran and its derivatives continues to be a vibrant area of study, promising exciting discoveries for the future.

    The Structure of Benzopyran

    In the world of organic chemistry, benzopyran stands as a heterocyclic compound with an interesting structure. Essentially, it's the fusion of a benzene and a pyran ring, hence the name "benzopyran".

    Studying the Structure of 2h-1-benzopyran-2-one

    Now, to delve deeper into the structural complexity of benzopyran, we have chosen to examine a particular derivative, namely 2h-1-benzopyran-2-one. This derivative introduces a carbonyl group (C=O) into the pyran ring of the benzopyran structure.

    A carbonyl group is characterised by a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom (\( C=O \)).

    The introduction of this carbonyl group has a considerable effect on the reactivity and stability of the benzopyran molecule. Essentially, the 2h-1-benzopyran-2-one structure is an oxygen-containing heterocycle that is aromatic and features six atoms.

    There are several methods to analyse the atomic arrangement within this molecule. Let's consider the use of crystallography, a scientific technique that provides in-depth insight into the crystalline nature of molecules, and NMR spectroscopy, a technique to measure the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei. Both these methods will yield comprehensive data about the structural arrangement and bonding environment within the molecule.

    Role of 2h-1-benzopyran-2-one in Organic Synthesis

    Under the vast umbrella of benzopyran derivatives, 2h-1-benzopyran-2-one plays a significant role in organic synthesis. This compound serves as a key intermediate in the preparation of various important organic compounds.

    One aspect to highlight is the electrophilic nature of the carbonyl group in this derivative. With partial positive charge on the carbon atom of the carbonyl group, it becomes an attractive site for nucleophilic attack, leading to the formation of more complex molecules.

    For instance, 2h-1-benzopyran-2-one can react with Grignard reagents, giving rise to an array of tertiary alcohols. Moreover, this particular benzopyran derivative can undergo further ring expansion reactions to form nine-membered carbocyclic compounds.

    Exploring The Structure of 2-methyl-3-nitro-2h-1-benzopyran

    Moving a step further, we now turn our attention to another benzopyran derivative, 2-methyl-3-nitro-2h-1-benzopyran. This derivative is an extension of the previous one, with a methyl and a nitro group added to the molecule.

    In terms of structure, the presence of a methyl group on the second carbon atom of the benzopyran ring makes it asymmetrical. The nitro group present at position three introduces interesting electronic effects into the molecule. Nitro groups, as electron-withdrawing substituents, can drastically affect the overall reactivity and properties of the compound.

    In fact, the nitro group can undergo various transformations, providing pathways to a wide array of other functional groups, such as amines, amides, or carboxylic acids, just to name a few. These transformations significantly broaden the range of organic reactions this compound can participate in.

    Relation Between 2-methyl-3-nitro-2h-1-benzopyran and Benzopyran Derivatives

    2-methyl-3-nitro-2h-1-benzopyran showcases the versatility of benzopyran derivatives. The various substituents, namely the methyl and nitro groups in this instance, allow for a myriad of potential transformations, rendering these compounds a valuable tool in organic synthesis pathways.

    What's fascinating is the remarkable influence these groups have on influencing the molecule's chemical reactivity as well as its potential interactions with other molecules. For instance, the nitro group facilitates various redox reactions, enhancing the molecule's potential as an electrophile and an oxidation agent.

    In conclusion, both 2h-1-benzopyran-2-one and 2-methyl-3-nitro-2h-1-benzopyran serve as excellent examples of the structural diversity and chemical potential benzopyran compounds can exhibit. They underscore the sheer complexity and versatility of benzopyran's role in organic chemistry.

    Exploring the Process of Benzopyran Synthesis

    An essential topic within the study of benzopyran is understanding how this compound is synthesised. The synthesis of benzopyran and its derivatives is a nuanced process that requires a deep understanding of organic chemistry principles and reaction mechanics.

    Understanding Benzopyran Synthesis Techniques

    There are multiple well-established methods to synthesise benzopyran and its derivatives. Many of these methods leverage base or acid catalysed reactions, transitioning between steric and electronic effects, all aimed at forming the unique benzopyran core. Here, we're focusing on two primary pathways: Fries rearrangement and Pechmann condensation.

    Fries rearrangement is a type of organic reaction where phenolic esters, upon heating with a Lewis acid catalyst, rearrange to give hydroxyketones.

    Pechmann condensation is a process that allows for the synthesis of coumarin (a type of benzopyran) through the reaction of a phenol with an activated carbonyl compound under acidic conditions.

    • Fries Rearrangement: Here, the synthesis of benzopyran begins with a phenolic ester undergoing Fries rearrangement in the presence of a Lewis acid. This reaction yields a hydroxyketone, which can then cyclise to form the benzopyran core.
    • Pechmann Condensation: This process employs the reaction of phenol with activated carbonyl compounds in an acidic medium. Remember, the acid serves as a catalyst, activating the carbonyl compound for nucleophilic attack, leading to coumarin.

    Both the Fries rearrangement and Pechmann condensation methods yield the unique bicyclic structure inherent in benzopyran. However, it's crucial to control the reaction conditions carefully. Factors like temperature, solvent, and concentration have to be suitably regulated for an efficient synthesis of the compound.

    Practical Applications of Benzopyran Synthesis

    Benzopyran and its derivatives, given their wide range of biological activities, are of considerable interest in medicinal chemistry. The various synthesis techniques of benzopyran allow for multiple alterations in the compound's structure, opening avenues to synthesise a plethora of therapeutically significant compounds.

    Indeed, benzopyran has been found useful in various medical areas. Some benzopyrans reveal antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-HIV properties. The key to developing these therapeutically influential compounds, however, lies in the successful synthesis of the benzopyran core.

    Diving Into 2-methyl-3-nitro-2h-1-benzopyran Synthesis

    Within the family of benzopyrans and their derivatives, the synthesis of 2-methyl-3-nitro-2h-1-benzopyran represents quite an interesting subject. It includes the principal core of benzopyran and integrates additional methyl and nitro groups.

    There are various protocols to synthesise 2-methyl-3-nitro-2h-1-benzopyran. One common method employs the Pechmann condensation methodology, starting with a phenol and an activated carbonyl compound under acidic conditions. However, in this case, the activated carbonyl compound is beta-ketoester. Why? This is because beta-ketoesters, under acidic conditions, can form benzopyrans with suitable phenol nucleophiles.

    Coming to the presence of methyl and nitro groups, there are a whole series of reactions after the benzopyran core has been synthesized. For the introduction of these groups, the Friedel-Crafts alkylation and nitration reactions are commonly employed. The Friedel-Crafts alkylation allows for the addition of the methyl group, whereas nitration facilitates the introduction of the nitro group.

    Components Involved in the Synthesis

    Critical to the production of this benzopyran derivative are reactants and catalysts. Furthermore, maintaining optimal conditions is vital.

    ReactantsIn the initial stages of the synthesis, phenol and beta-ketoester serve as key reactants. For the attachment of the methyl group, a Friedel-Crafts alkylation is needed, typically employing a suitable alkyl halide. The addition of the nitro group requires a nitration reaction, often involving a nitrating mixture of concentrated nitric and sulphuric acids.
    CatalystsLewis acid catalysts, typically aluminium chloride, are necessary for the Friedel-Crafts alkylation, and a strong acid catalyst, often sulphuric acid, is necessary for the Pechmann condensation and the nitration reactions.
    ConditionsReaction conditions, such as temperature and solvent choice, can significantly influence the synthesis outcome. It is often necessary to cool the reaction mixture during nitration to prevent the generation of dinitro compounds or decomposition products.

    Tailoring these reaction conditions and introducing other chemical modifications offers the potential for a broad range of biologically active benzopyran derivatives. So, understanding the complexity and the careful orchestration behind the synthesis of 2-methyl-3-nitro-2h-1-benzopyran is a crucial stepping-stone not only in organic chemistry but also in the creation of potentially lifesaving therapeutic compounds.

    Benzopyran Examples in Organic Chemistry

    In the realm of organic chemistry, benzopyran serves as a parent system for a range of chemically interesting molecules. Benzopyran and its derivatives are riddled throughout the biochemical world, featuring in several bioactive and therapeutically significant compounds.

    Highlighting Noteworthy Benzopyran Examples

    Upon delving into the extensive family of benzopyran compounds, you'd encounter a variety of molecules, each bearing unique structural features and offering distinct functionality in organic chemistry. A couple of prominent examples would include coumarin and chromene.

    Coumarin is a simple benzopyran derivative adopting the structure of 2H-chromen-2-one. It comprises a benzene ring joined to a pyran ring, with a carbonyl group attached to the pyran ring.

    Chromene, also known as 2H-chromene, forms the fundamental structural backbone of benzopyran. It essentially features a benzene ring fused to a pyran ring.

    Though coumarin and chromene share the benzopyran core, their individual structures lend them distinct chemical properties, thereby influencing their reactivity and applications in organic chemistry.

    The Functionalities of Coumarin

    Coumarin, due to its inherent oxygen functionality and aromaticity, exhibits a broad range of biological activities, making it a common motif in natural products and medicinal agents. Its synthesis is primarily through the Pechmann condensation involving a phenol and a β-keto ester under acidic conditions. The formation of coumarin involves nucleophilic addition followed by dehydration, resulting in the formation of the pyrone ring.

    Consider some biological activities of coumarin:

    • Anticoagulant Activity - Certain coumarin derivatives, like warfarin and phenprocoumon, are renowned for their activity as anticoagulants, i.e., they prevent the blood from clotting.
    • Anti-HIV - Certain coumarin derivatives exhibit efficiency in inhibiting the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
    • Anticancer - Some derivatives have demonstrated promising results in inhibiting the growth of various types of cancer cells.

    On top of its bioactivity, coumarin also possess notable fluorescent properties, leading to its use as a fluorescent probe in biological research and making it a critical component in certain laser dyes and fluorescent whiteners. The increase in applications of coumarin in medicinal and material science fields underlines the compound's significance in organic chemistry.

    Observing the Functionality of Chromene

    Chromene, like coumarin, is a fundamental structure in a multitude of natural bioactive compounds. Its core structure is essentially a benzopyran core without any additional functional groups. This structure makes chromene an attractive platform for various organic transformations, thereby highlighting its importance in organic synthesis.

    Moreover, chromene and its derivatives exhibit a wide array of biological activities, similar to coumarin. Certain chromene derivatives have displayed anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancer, and even antiviral properties. For instance, a chromene derivative named naringenin, commonly found in grapefruit, has displayed potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

    In terms of synthesis, a popular route to chromenes involves an oxa-Pictet–Spengler reaction. The mechanism involves an electrophilic substitution followed by an intramolecular capture of a carbocation by a hydroxyl group to form the chromene ring:

    \[ \text{PhOH + $\underset{\text{Carbonyl Compound}}{\text{R-CH=CH-C(=O)-X}}$ ->[\text{Acid}] \text{Chromene Derivative} \]

    The biological activities and the synthetic importance coupled with its role as a precursor for various complex molecules underscore chromene's significance in organic chemistry.

    In summary, both coumarin and chromene, derived from the benzopyran scaffold, feature extensively in both organic synthesis and medicinal chemistry. Understanding the structure-function relationship of these compounds could provide valuable insights into the development of new drugs and organic materials.

    Benzopyran - Key takeaways

    • Benzopyran: It is an aromatic heterocycle found in several natural products, with the structure being a fusion of a benzene and a pyran ring. It exhibits significant biological activity.
    • Flavones and Coumarins: These are examples of benzopyran derivatives. Flavones have a secondary benzene ring fused at the 2- and 3-positions of benzopyran, represented by \( C_{15}H_{10}O_{2} \). Coumarins have a second benzene ring fused at the 1- and 2-positions of the original benzopyran structure.
    • 2h-1-benzopyran-2-one: It is a benzopyran derivative featuring a carbonyl group (C=O) added to the pyran ring. This group significantly affects its reactivity and stability.
    • 2-methyl-3-nitro-2h-1-benzopyran: Another benzopyran derivative that includes a methyl and a nitro group added to the benzopyran structure. These additions drastically affect the overall reactivity and properties of the compound.
    • Benzopyran Synthesis Techniques: Two primary pathways for synthesising benzopyran include the Fries rearrangement (where phenolic esters, heated with a Lewis acid catalyst, restructure to give hydroxyketones) and Pechmann condensation (where phenol reacts with an activated carbonyl compound under acidic conditions).
    Benzopyran Benzopyran
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    Frequently Asked Questions about Benzopyran
    What is Benzopyran? Please write in UK English.
    Benzopyran is a polycyclic compound that is organic in nature, found in chemical field. It is also referred as a parent term for a class of organic molecules, the chromenes, observed in several biological compounds like vitamin E and K.
    What is Benzopyran used for?
    Benzopyran is primarily used in the pharmaceutical industry for drug synthesis. Its derivatives are utilised in the production of a variety of medicines for heart diseases, cancer, inflammation, microbial infection, and central nervous system disorders.
    What are benzopyran derivatives? Please write in UK English.
    Benzopyran derivatives are chemical compounds derived from the benzopyran structure, a fusion of benzene and pyran rings. These derivatives show a wide range of biological activities and are important in drug discovery for their pharmacological properties.
    What are the properties of Benzopyran? Please write in UK English.
    Benzopyran, also known as chromene, is a polycyclic organic compound. It is a colourless solid that is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Benzopyran exhibits aromaticity and has a high degree of stability due to resonance. It can function as a parent compound for several bioactive chemicals.
    What is the IUPAC name for Benzopyran in UK English?
    The IUPAC name for Benzopyran is 2H-Chromene.

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