Phenanthrene

Delve into the multifaceted world of organic chemistry with an in-depth look at phenanthrene. This essential polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, with its intriguing structure and fascinating characteristics, forms the bedrock of countless chemical processes. You'll explore everything from its definition and significance, to its synthesis methods, and its contrast with anthracene. The article also features a detailed analysis of phenanthrene's aromaticity, intriguing chemical properties, multitude of derivatives, and practical applications in the everyday world. Acquiring a thorough understanding of phenanthrene imbues you with the knowledge to decipher the phenomenal aspects of organic chemistry.

Phenanthrene Phenanthrene

Create learning materials about Phenanthrene with our free learning app!

  • Instand access to millions of learning materials
  • Flashcards, notes, mock-exams and more
  • Everything you need to ace your exams
Create a free account
Contents
Table of contents

    Understanding Phenanthrene in Organic Chemistry

    Phenanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) consisting of three interconnected six-membered rings. This compound is widespread in the environment and plays a prominent role in numerous applications within the field of organic chemistry.

    Phenanthrene Definition and Importance

    You might be wondering what Phenanthrene is. In basic terms, Phenanthrene is a white crystalline organic compound found in coal tar and other fossil fuels, with the molecular formula C14H10.

    The Basics of Phenanthrene

    Phenanthrene is a molecular entity in organic chemistry that's key to many chemical processes observed in the environment. It's characterised by its unique structure and importance in environmental science, pharmaceuticals, and molecular research.

    For instance, in pharmaceuticals, Phenanthrene is used as the foundation for various drugs such as morphine and other opioids.

    Why is Phenanthrene Significant in Organic Chemistry?

    Multiple reasons exist for Phenanthrene being considered significant in Organic Chemistry. Primarily these reasons include its presence in various natural and man-made materials such as coal tar, cigarette smoke, and automobile exhaust, which makes it a compound of environmental concern.

    The Structure and Formula of Phenanthrene

    When you look at Phenanthrene, you will notice it has a unique formation, which is characterized by three interconnected benzene rings in a linear arrangement.

    The molecular formula for Phenanthrene is \(C_{14}H_{10}\).

    Breaking Down the Phenanthrene Structure

    Furthermore, the molecular structure of Phenanthrene is represented as below:
    1. It consists of 14 carbon atoms (C).
    2. It has ten hydrogen atoms (H).
    3. The carbon atoms are arranged in three fused benzene rings.

    A Closer Look at the Phenanthrene Formula

    The following table illustrates the composition of Phenanthrene:
    ElementCount
    Carbon (C)14
    Hydrogen (H)10
    One attractive property of Phenanthrene is its aromaticity, which confers stability to the molecule. The electronic structure of Phenanthrene can be described in terms of \(\pi\) molecular orbitals resulting from \(\pi\) bonds, spread over the entire molecule. This delocalization of electrons contributes to its overall stability and sets the stage for its interesting chemical reactivity.

    This ends our exploration of the rich world of Phenanthrene - a relatively simple molecule with a large presence in the field of organic chemistry. Remember, mastery of such concepts is foundational to a deeper understanding of the organic chemistry that surrounds us all.

    Phenanthrene Synthesis: Methods and Processes

    The production or synthesis of Phenanthrene represents a deep and interesting segment of organic chemistry. It has been the subject of numerous studies and experiments, and several methods have evolved over time. All these approaches aim to construct the tricyclic phenanthrene system, either from simpler building blocks or through modification of already complex substrates.

    An Introduction to the Synthesis of Phenanthrene

    To give you a basic understanding, Phenanthrene synthesis includes those chemical processes and methods that yield Phenanthrene. It is a multi-step process, often symbolised by the reaction steps and chemical compounds involved.

    Various methods have been developed for the synthesis of Phenanthrene, driven by its importance in chemical, environmental, and pharmaceutical research. Some common methods include the following:
    • Haworth Synthesis
    • Gattermann-Koch reaction
    • Pomeranz–Fritsch reaction
    These strategies typically begin with small precursors like benzene and work up to larger polycyclic systems. They exploit fundamental chemical reactions, such as aromatic substitutions, condensations, or rearrangements.

    Common Techniques in Phenanthrene Synthesis

    Synthesis of Phenanthrene varies in complexity depending on the method chosen. Below are the common techniques involved:

    Aromatic Substitution: This technique involves replacing one atom in an aromatic framework with another atom or group.

    Condensation Reactions: These reactions involve the joining of two molecules with the loss of a small molecule, such as water. Often used in the formation of complex structures.

    Ring Formation: Ring formations or cyclization reactions are pivotal to creating the cyclic structures present in Phenanthrene.

    Haworth Synthesis of Phenanthrene: A Detailed Study

    Among the several methods, Haworth Synthesis stands out. Named after the British chemist Sir Norman Haworth, this method typically involves the reaction of a \(\beta\)-naphthol compound with a suitable aldehyde in the presence of a strong acid.

    \(\beta\)-Naphthol: This is a phenolic compound derived from Naphthalene and acts as the starting component for the Haworth Synthesis.

    Understanding the Steps in Haworth Synthesis

    Let's break down the process of the Haworth Synthesis:
    • The first step starts with condensation of a \(\beta\)-naphthol compound with an aldehyde through the removal of a water molecule.
    • The second step involves a cyclization, where the aromatic ring of the naphthol attacks the newly formed carbonyl, creating a new six-membered ring.
    • The final step sees a dehydration reaction removing the extra hydrogen and oxygen atoms, forming a final aromatic ring and yielding the phenanthrene framework.
    This final compound is now Phenanthrene, the product of a careful orchestration of fundamental organic reactions. Code-breaking into these mechanisms offers a broader perspective on the wonders one simple aromatic hydrocarbon can reveal. Remember, this exploration into Phenanthrene Synthesis represents one facet of the complex world of organic chemistry, highlighting the fascinating interconnectedness of each concept, from the simplest molecule to the most complex reaction mechanisms.

    Anthracene and Phenanthrene: A Comparative Study

    Taking the spotlight in organic chemistry are two significant Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Anthracene and Phenanthrene. While they share many similarities, there are stark differences which set them apart and give each of them their unique roles in the world of chemistry.

    Exploring Phenanthrene and Anthracene Differences

    The major distinction between Phenanthrene and Anthracene lies in their molecular structure and arrangement of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Along with this, their chemical properties and reactivity are also diverse, largely due to the difference in their skeletal structure.
    PhenanthreneAnthracene
    Chemical formula\(C_{14}H_{10}\)\(C_{14}H_{10}\)
    Molecular weight178.23 g/mol178.23 g/mol
    Number of rings33
    While both Anthracene and Phenanthrene share the same chemical formula and molecular weight, their structure and layout of carbon rings differ, contributing to variations in their properties.

    Anthracene is a crystalline solid PAH which consists of three linearly fused benzene rings. Additionally, it has a planar structure with adjacent bonds showing alternate double and single carbon-carbon bonds.

    Phenanthrene, on the other hand, though a PAH, houses a different structural layout. It possesses two outer benzene rings fused with a central five-membered ring, offering a non-linear and non-planar character to the molecule.

    Analysing the Chemical Structures of Anthracene and Phenanthrene

    Deeper into the realm of these molecules, both Anthracene and Phenanthrene have a fascinating architecture that results in their distinct properties.
    • Anthracene: C14H10, as mentioned earlier, houses three aligned benzene rings. However, the core beauty of Anthracene lies in the fact that it is a conjugated system, which means there is an alternate arrangement of single and double bonds resulting in a system of delocalized pi electrons spread over the entire molecule. The electrons in these molecules are not associated with a single bond or atom but extend over the entire molecule, lending the molecule a unique high stability.
    • Phenanthrene: As for Phenanthrene, it possesses a unique arrangement. Two benzene rings at the periphery are fused with a central five-membered ring. Though Phenanthrene displays conjugation like Anthracene, it has additional resonance stability, justifying why Phenanthrene is slightly more stable than Anthracene.
    Further analysing, the structural variation between Anthracene and Phenanthrene has a substantial impact on their physical and chemical properties. Anthracene showcases a planar structure because of its linear arrangement, whereas Phenanthrene does not exhibit a flat nature due to its angular ring fusion. These structural differences result in distinct reactivity profiles. For example, Anthracene tends to undergo addition reactions, especially at the central bond due to the susceptibility of the conjugated system to electrophilic attack. Contrarily, Phenanthrene is more prone to electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions, typically at the 9- and 10-positions, mainly because of the additional resonance stability in these positions. Remember, the concealed secret to the behaviour of these two intriguing molecules rests underneath their unique structures. Peeling back the layers, you will find how the assembly of carbon and hydrogen atoms can bring about exciting variations in properties and reactivity. The world of organic chemistry truly marvels at these molecular archetypes - Anthracene and Phenanthrene.

    The Aromaticity and Chemical Properties of Phenanthrene

    Diving into Phenanthrene's aromatic nature and chemical properties, it is important to recognise the essential role these characteristics play in defining its attributes and applications. Phenanthrene's aromatic property and chemical behaviours are the reasons it serves as a benchmark in many scientific studies, especially in organic chemistry, environmental science, and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Delving into Phenanthrene Aromaticity

    Aromaticity, in its simplest terms, refers to a property of cyclic compounds which provide them extraordinary stability. In the case of Phenanthrene, understanding its aromaticity requires us to explore its structure.

    Phenanthrene, a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), comprises two outer benzene (six-membered) rings fused to a central five-membered ring. This unique structure in Phenanthrene results in inherent aromaticity, and the molecular stability that comes with it.

    Discussing the Aromatic Features of Phenanthrene

    Aromatic compounds like Phenanthrene exhibit a few particular features in line with the Hückel's rule, an established rule in organic chemistry that helps determine a compound's aromaticity.

    Hückel's rule asserts that for a ring to be aromatic, it must contain a certain number of pi electrons - specifically, 4n+2 pi electrons, where n is any whole number.

    So how does Phenanthrene fit into this? Well, the research is fascinating!
    • In the first place, Phenanthrene, has 14 pi electrons throughout its structure, which does confirm to the Hückel's rule (putting \(n = 3\)).
    • Second, it shows high resonance stability. Resonance, as a straightforward chemical concept, can be thought of as the delocalization of pi electrons over a molecule. In Phenanthrene, pi electrons are not associated with a single bond or atom but extend over the entire molecule, lending the molecule stability.
    Thus, the two basic conditions for an aromatic compound are satisfied by Phenanthrene- it has delocalised pi electrons and complies with Hückel's rule.

    The Chemical Properties of Phenanthrene

    Phenanthrene’s presence in many organic reactions, several therapeutic agents and chemical reactions attests to its pivotal chemical properties. It exhibits properties like chemical stability, low reactivity, and solubility characteristics that are specific to aromatic hydrocarbons. Phenanthrene's stable ring system minimises its reactivity, and as a result, it is less prone to addition reactions, a prime characteristic of aromatic compounds.

    Identifying the Chemical Behaviours of Phenanthrene

    Phenanthrene’s chemical properties mainly emanate from its aromatic character and specific structure. Here are a few critical behaviours:
    • Stability: Like other aromatic compounds, Phenanthrene exhibits admirable chemical stability due to its resonance-stabilised structure.
    • Reactivity: Phenanthrene tends to show low reactivity due to its stable conjugated system of pi bonds. However, it is susceptible to electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions at the 9- and 10-positions.
    • Solubility: Being a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Phenanthrene is insoluble in water but soluble in many organic solvents. Its non-polar nature and the presence of only carbon and hydrogen atoms contribute to this solubility pattern.
    • Fluorescence: Quite interestingly, Phenanthrene is fluorescent. When exposed to UV light, Phenanthrene absorbs photons and goes to an excited state. Eventually, when it returns to the ground state, it emits light, causing fluorescence. This property makes Phenanthrene quite handy in scientific research.
    While it might seem surprising initially, the mystery behind Phenanthrene's intriguing properties lies embedded in the compound's molecular architecture. Unlocking these characteristics involves appreciating the interactions and unions of carbon and hydrogen atoms, resulting in this versatile molecule entitled - Phenanthrene.

    Phenanthrene Derivatives and Examples

    Delving into the derivatives of Phenanthrene, you'll find a rich array of chemicals synthesized from the backbone of the Phenanthrene structure. These derivatives not only retain the aromatic brilliance of Phenanthrene but are diverse in properties and applications, making them indispensable in the scientific domain.

    Various Types of Phenanthrene Derivatives

    Phenanthrene can be modified to derive numerous compounds, each altering the original structure in unique ways and serving distinct purposes. Phenanthridine: A nitrogen-containing derivative of Phenanthrene, Phenanthridine, too, showcases aromatic stability alongside the interesting property of being a weak base. This compound finds applications in medicinal chemistry and the synthesis of certain dyes. Phenanthrenequinone: An oxygen derivative of Phenanthrene, Phenanthrenequinone, holds two carbonyl groups in its structure. As strong electron-withdrawing groups, they make Phenanthrenequinone an excellent oxidising agent, used in fields like dye synthesis. Below are a few more examples for observation:
    Methylphenanthrene\[ C_{15}H_{12} \]
    Phenanthrenequinone\[ C_{14}H_{8}O_{2} \]
    9,10-dihydrophenanthrene \[ C_{14}H_{12} \]
    Peri-naphthenone\[ C_{14}H_{10}O \]

    How is Phenanthrene Modified into its Derivatives?

    Derivatives of Phenanthrene are obtained mainly by chemical substitutions or removals at one or more positions in the Phenanthrene molecule. The process of creating these derivatives involves various organic reactions, each varying with the desired derivative. For instance, to synthesise Phenanthrenequinone, a reaction of Phenanthrene with chromic acid or chromium trioxide in acetic acid results in the addition of carbonyl groups. Perhaps to simplify this, how about looking at it like a modification to a basic cake recipe? Vanilla cake (Phenanthrene) could become a ten-layered chocolate cake (Phenanthrenequinone) by adding chocolate (chromic acid) and layering (acetic acid).

    Phenanthrene Example: Practical Applications

    Let's get practical with Phenanthrene! As a pivotal organic compound, this aromatic hydrocarbon is significant not just within chemistry laboratories but has their influence extended to diverse applications in day-to-day life. Firstly, Phenanthrene finds its usage in the production of dyes. Its unique aromatic structure and the ability to form stable ions make it efficient in synthesising a variety of colourful and vibrant dyes. Phenanthrene is also used in the production of drugs. Several Phenanthrene derivatives, like morphine, codeine, and thebaine, showcase significant biological activity and are therefore essential components in several pharmaceutical products. Furthermore, Phenanthrene has also been used widely in chemical research as a starting material or an intermediate in synthesising more complex structures. Other applications include its usage in smoke generators for insecticidal purposes and as fluorescent material thanks to its unique property of fluorescence.
    Dye ProductionPhenanthrene's unique structure enables the production of a wide range of vibrant dyes.
    Drug ManufacturingSeveral important drugs, including morphine, codeine, and thebaine, utilise Phenanthrene.
    Chemical ResearchDue to its stable structure, Phenanthrene serves as a critical material in chemical research.

    Unveiling Real-life Instances of Phenanthrene Usage

    If you look around, you would probably find plenty of instances where Phenanthrene and its derivatives are being utilised, even without your realisation. Have you ever wondered why a particular fabric showcases such vibrant colour? It might be because Phenanthrene or its derivative has been used for its dyeing process. Or why your cough syrup works so well? Thanks to Phenanthrene-derived compounds. In numerous ways, far and wide, Phenanthrene is truly embellishing our lives, stretching its molecular brilliance beyond the lab spaces into the richness of daily life. It's more than safe to say - in the dynamic world of chemistry, Phenanthrene and its derivatives certainly have their star shining bright.

    Phenanthrene - Key takeaways

    • Phenanthrene: A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with a distinct structure featuring two six-membered benzene rings fused with a five-membered ring conferring aromaticity and substantial stability.
    • Phenanthrene Synthesis: Includes various chemical processes to yield Phenanthrene using methods such as Haworth Synthesis, Gattermann-Koch reaction, and Pomeranz–Fritsch reaction.
    • Haworth Synthesis of Phenanthrene: Involves the reaction of a β-naphthol compound with an aldehyde in the presence of a strong acid, forming the complex Phenanthrene system.
    • Anthracene and Phenanthrene: Both are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with same molecular formula but differ in structure and reactivity due to different ring arrangements (Anthracene has three fused benzene rings arranged linearly whilst Phenanthrene has two benzene rings fused with a central five-membered ring).
    • Aromaticity of Phenanthrene: Arises from the Hückel's rule compliant pi electron system and high resonance stability resulting from delocalisation of pi electrons across the entire structure.
    • Phenanthrene Chemical Properties: Include stability, low reactivity, solubility in organic solvents, and fluorescence. It is also susceptible to electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions at the 9- and 10-positions.
    • Phenanthrene Derivatives: Include Phenanthridine, a nitrogen-containing compound used in medicinal chemistry and dye synthesis, and Phenanthrenequinone, an oxygen derivative used as an oxidising agent.
    Phenanthrene Phenanthrene
    Learn with 15 Phenanthrene flashcards in the free StudySmarter app

    We have 14,000 flashcards about Dynamic Landscapes.

    Sign up with Email

    Already have an account? Log in

    Frequently Asked Questions about Phenanthrene
    What is Phenanthrene? Please write in UK English.
    Phenanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composed of three fused benzene rings. It is a colourless crystalline solid, found in both coal tar and cigarette smoke, often used in research to study the metabolism of more complex PAHs.
    How many resonance structures are there for Phenanthrene in UK English?
    Phenanthrene has five significant resonance structures. These structures help to distribute the π electron density over the entire molecule, contributing to its aromatic stability.
    Is phenanthrene aromatic?
    Yes, Phenanthrene is aromatic. It has a polycyclic structure with pi electron delocalisation over the entire molecule, manifesting a substantial aromatic stabilisation, which is a feature of aromatic compounds.
    Is phenanthrene organic?
    Yes, phenanthrene is an organic compound. It belongs to the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, consisting of three fused benzene rings.
    How can one obtain phenanthroline monohydrates from Phenanthrene? Please write in UK English.
    Phenanthroline monohydrates cannot be directly derived from phenanthrene. Phenanthrene's structure lacks nitrogen atoms, which are vital for forming phenanthroline compounds. Instead, phenanthrolines are often synthesised from condensation reactions involving 2,2'-dipyridyl or an equivalent substrate.

    Test your knowledge with multiple choice flashcards

    What is the molecular formula for Phenanthrene?

    Why is Phenanthrene considered significant in Organic Chemistry?

    How does the structure of Phenanthrene contribute to its chemical stability?

    Next
    1
    About StudySmarter

    StudySmarter is a globally recognized educational technology company, offering a holistic learning platform designed for students of all ages and educational levels. Our platform provides learning support for a wide range of subjects, including STEM, Social Sciences, and Languages and also helps students to successfully master various tests and exams worldwide, such as GCSE, A Level, SAT, ACT, Abitur, and more. We offer an extensive library of learning materials, including interactive flashcards, comprehensive textbook solutions, and detailed explanations. The cutting-edge technology and tools we provide help students create their own learning materials. StudySmarter’s content is not only expert-verified but also regularly updated to ensure accuracy and relevance.

    Learn more
    StudySmarter Editorial Team

    Team Phenanthrene Teachers

    • 15 minutes reading time
    • Checked by StudySmarter Editorial Team
    Save Explanation

    Study anywhere. Anytime.Across all devices.

    Sign-up for free

    Sign up to highlight and take notes. It’s 100% free.

    Join over 22 million students in learning with our StudySmarter App

    The first learning app that truly has everything you need to ace your exams in one place

    • Flashcards & Quizzes
    • AI Study Assistant
    • Study Planner
    • Mock-Exams
    • Smart Note-Taking
    Join over 22 million students in learning with our StudySmarter App