# Absolute Values

Absolute values measure the distance of a number from zero on a number line, without considering direction. They are always non-negative and denoted by two vertical bars, for example, |−3| equals 3. Understanding absolute values is crucial in fields such as algebra and calculus, as they simplify complex calculations.

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## Absolute Value Definition

Understanding the absolute value is an important concept in mathematics. It helps you solve equations and understand distances on the number line.

### What is Absolute Value?

The absolute value of a number represents its distance from zero on the number line, regardless of direction. If the number is positive, its absolute value is itself. If the number is negative, its absolute value is its positive counterpart. In mathematical terms, the absolute value of a number x is denoted by $$|x|$$. For example, $$|3| = 3$$ and $$|-3| = 3$$. This concept is essential for understanding distances and magnitudes in mathematics.

Absolute Value: The absolute value, denoted by two vertical bars, $$|x|$$, is the distance of the number x from zero on the number line.

• $$|5| = 5$$
• $$|-7| = 7$$
• $$|0| = 0$$ (because zero is already at zero distance from itself)
These examples demonstrate that the absolute value focuses only on the distance, not the direction.

### Symbol for Absolute Value

The symbol for absolute value is two vertical bars enclosing the number or expression. This is written as $$|x|$$. It's important to get comfortable with this notation because it appears frequently in various mathematical contexts.Consider these examples using expressions:

• $$|x - 5|$$
• $$|2x + 3|$$
These expressions inside the bars give the absolute value of the entire expression.

The absolute value function can be extended to complex numbers. For a complex number $$z = a + bi$$, where $$a$$ and $$b$$ are real numbers, the absolute value is given by the formula: $$|z| = \sqrt{(a^2 + b^2)}$$. This follows the same idea of measuring the 'distance' but now on the complex plane.

### Importance of Absolute Value in Mathematical Analysis

Absolute values are vital in various aspects of mathematics, from solving equations to analysing real-world scenarios. Here are a few key importance points:

• Distances: The concept of absolute value is used to find the distance between points on the number line.
• Solving Equations: Absolute values are often featured in equations and inequalities. For example, solving $$|x - 2| = 5$$ requires understanding absolute values.
• Real-world Applications: Absolute values are used in fields like engineering, physics, and economics to measure things like error margins and financial deviations.

When solving an equation involving absolute values, think about both the positive and negative solutions to ensure you capture all possible answers.

## Absolute Value Function

The absolute value function is crucial in mathematics, helping you understand distances, magnitudes, and solving equations effectively.

### Graphing the Absolute Value Function

Graphing an absolute value function offers a visual representation of the function\'s properties. The simplest absolute value function is $$f(x) = |x|$$. This function shows a V-shaped graph that opens upwards.The graph has the following key characteristics:

• The point at the origin $$(0, 0)$$ is the vertex.
• The function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis.
• For values of $$x$$ greater than or equal to zero, $$f(x)$$ behaves as a linear function $$f(x) = x$$.
• For values of $$x$$ less than zero, $$f(x)$$ behaves as a linear function $$f(x) = -x$$.

Consider the absolute value function $$f(x) = |x - 3|$$. This shifts the V-shaped graph horizontally, moving the vertex to $$(3, 0)$$. If the function is $$f(x) = |x| + 2$$, the vertex moves upwards to $$(0, 2)$$. Such transformations help understand how the graph shifts and changes appearance.

### Piecewise Definition of Absolute Value Function

The absolute value function $$|x|$$ can be defined in a piecewise format. This piecewise definition breaks the function into parts, explaining its behaviour on different intervals.In mathematical notation, it can be written as:

• $$|x| = x$$ if $$x \geq 0$$
• $$|x| = -x$$ if $$x < 0$$
This definition helps in understanding how the absolute value function converts negative inputs to positive results, while keeping positive inputs unchanged.

When dealing with piecewise functions, you may also encounter more complex forms like $$|x - 2|$$ or $$|2x + 1|$$. These require breaking down the function's behaviour based on the input conditions. For instance, $$|x - 2|$$ can be written as:

• $$|x - 2| = x - 2$$ if $$x \geq 2$$
• $$|x - 2| = 2 - x$$ if $$x < 2$$

### Applications of Absolute Value Function

The absolute value function has numerous practical applications, extending its utility beyond theoretical mathematics. Here are some common applications:

• Distance Calculation: It is used to calculate the distance between two points on the number line. For instance, the distance between numbers $$a$$ and $$b$$ can be found using $$|a - b|$$.
• Error Measurement: In scientific experiments, absolute values measure the margin of error. If the actual value is $$a$$ and the observed value is $$b$$, the error can be given by $$|a - b|$$.
• Financial Modelling: Absolute value functions are used in finance to determine deviations. For example, the deviation of a stock price from its average value can be calculated using $$|price - average|$$.

In physics, if you know an object's displacement $$d$$ and want to find out its total distance travelled, you can use the absolute value. If an object moves from point $$A$$ to point $$B$$, then back to point $$A$$, the total distance is $$|d_1| + |d_2|$$, where $$d_1$$ and $$d_2$$ are the displacements in each segment.

Absolute values remove any directional information, focusing purely on magnitude. Always consider both positive and negative solutions when calculating distances or solving equations involving absolute values.

## Absolute Value Equations

Absolute value equations are equations in which the unknown variable appears inside absolute value bars. Understanding how to solve these equations is crucial for a thorough grasp of algebra.

### Solving Absolute Value Equations

To solve an absolute value equation, you must consider both the positive and negative possibilities of the expression inside the absolute value bars. Follow these steps to solve absolute value equations:

• Isolate the absolute value expression on one side of the equation.
• Create two separate equations: one for the positive scenario and one for the negative scenario.
• Solve each equation separately.
• Check the solutions in the original equation to verify their validity.

Solve the equation $$|x - 3| = 5$$:

• Isolate the absolute value: The equation is already isolated.
• Create two equations:1) $$x - 3 = 5$$2) $$x - 3 = -5$$
• Solve each equation:1) $$x = 8$$2) $$x = -2$$
• So, the solutions are $$x = 8$$ and $$x = -2$$.

When solving absolute value equations, always check your solutions by substituting them back into the original equation to ensure they are valid.

In cases where the absolute value equation includes more complex expressions, such as $$|3x - 2| = 7$$, follow the same procedure:

• Isolate the absolute value: $$|3x - 2| = 7$$
• Create two equations:1) $$3x - 2 = 7$$2) $$3x - 2 = -7$$
• Solve each equation:1) $$3x = 9$$ thus $$x = 3$$2) $$3x = -5$$ thus $$x = -\frac{5}{3}$$
• The solutions are $$x = 3$$ and $$x = -\frac{5}{3}$$.
These steps apply to any absolute value equation, no matter how complex.

### Examples of Absolute Value Equations

Examples can make it easier for you to understand how to handle absolute value equations in various scenarios.

1. Solve $$|x + 4| = 9$$:

• Isolate the absolute value: $$|x + 4| = 9$$
• Create two equations:1) $$x + 4 = 9$$2) $$x + 4 = -9$$
• Solve each equation:1) $$x = 5$$2) $$x = -13$$
• The solutions are $$x = 5$$ and $$x = -13$$.

2. Solve $$|2x - 3| = 4$$:

• Isolate the absolute value: $$|2x - 3| = 4$$
• Create two equations:1) $$2x - 3 = 4$$2) $$2x - 3 = -4$$
• Solve each equation:1) $$2x = 7$$ thus $$x = \frac{7}{2}$$2) $$2x = -1$$ thus $$x = -\frac{1}{2}$$
• The solutions are $$x = \frac{7}{2}$$ and $$x = -\frac{1}{2}$$.

If the absolute value is set equal to a negative number, the equation has no solution, as absolute values cannot be negative.

### Common Pitfalls in Absolute Value Equations

To avoid mistakes when solving absolute value equations, keep an eye out for these common pitfalls:

• Not considering both positive and negative solutions: Always create two equations representing both scenarios.
• Forgetting to isolate the absolute value expression: Ensure the absolute value expression is isolated before solving.
• Ignoring potential extraneous solutions: Always substitute solutions back into the original equation to verify their validity.
• Assuming solutions exist for negative values: Remember that an absolute value equation equal to a negative number has no solution.

## Absolute Value Inequalities

Absolute value inequalities are expressions that involve inequalities with absolute value terms. Understanding how to solve these inequalities will enhance your ability to deal with a variety of mathematical problems.

### Understanding Absolute Value Inequalities

Understanding absolute value inequalities requires knowing how absolute values work and how to handle inequalities. In general, absolute value inequalities can be written in the form $$|A| < B$$, $$|A| > B$$, $$|A| \leq B$$, or $$|A| \geq B$$, where $$A$$ and $$B$$ are expressions.Here are the primary forms and their interpretations:

 $$|A| < B$$ This inequality states that the distance of $$A$$ from zero is less than $$B$$, which can be expressed as two inequalities: $$-B < A < B$$. $$|A| > B$$ This means that the distance of $$A$$ from zero is greater than $$B$$, which can be broken down into two inequalities: $$A < -B$$ or $$A > B$$. $$|A| \leq B$$ Similar to $$|A| < B$$ but includes the equality case: $$-B \leq A \leq B$$. $$|A| \geq B$$ Similar to $$|A| > B$$ but includes the equality case: $$A \leq -B$$ or $$A \geq B$$.

Consider the inequality $$|x + 2| < 5$$. To solve this, use the interpretation of absolute value inequalities:

• $$-5 < x + 2 < 5$$
• Simplify to find the solution: $$-7 < x < 3$$
Therefore, the solution set for the inequality $$|x + 2| < 5$$ is $$-7 < x < 3$$.

When working with absolute value inequalities, always split them into two separate inequalities to solve.

### Solving Absolute Value Inequalities

To solve absolute value inequalities, here are the steps you should follow:1. Isolate the absolute value expression on one side of the inequality.2. Determine the inequality type: Consider if it is a 'less than' or 'greater than' type.3. Rewrite the absolute value inequality as two separate inequalities.4. Solve each inequality individually.5. Express the solution as an interval or inequality.

Solve the inequality $$|2x - 4| \geq 6$$:

• First, isolate the absolute value: $$|2x - 4| \geq 6$$.
• Rewrite it as two separate inequalities since it is a 'greater than' type:1) $$2x - 4 \geq 6$$2) $$2x - 4 \leq -6$$
• Solve each inequality:1) $$2x \geq 10$$ thus $$x \geq 5$$2) $$2x \leq -2$$ thus $$x \leq -1$$
The solution set for $$|2x - 4| \geq 6$$ is $$x \geq 5$$ or $$x \leq -1$$.

For more complex inequalities like $$|3x + 1| < 2|x - 1|$$, isolate one absolute value expression before breaking it into two separate inequalities:

• $$3x + 1 < 2(x - 1)$$ and $$-3x - 1 < 2(x - 1)$$ become linear inequalities that you solve separately.
• Simplify each inequality to obtain the solution set, considering both positive and negative cases.
This approach ensures you capture all possible solutions within the inequality.

### Graphical Representation of Absolute Value Inequalities

Understanding the graphical representation of absolute value inequalities can make it easier to visualise the solution sets.For inequalities like $$|x - 3| < 4$$, the solution set $$-1 < x < 7$$ can be represented on a number line. This shows the interval of values that satisfy the inequality.

Consider $$|x + 1| \leq 3$$:

• Rewrite it as $$-3 \leq x + 1 \leq 3$$.
• Solve each part: $$-4 \leq x \leq 2$$.
The graphical representation on the number line includes all values between -4 and 2, inclusive. Thus, you can easily visualise which numbers satisfy the inequality.

Graphical representations are particularly useful for understanding compound inequalities and visualising solution sets on the number line.

## Absolute Value Properties

The properties of absolute values are foundational concepts in mathematics that simplify complex equations and inequalities. Understanding these properties enables you to solve problems efficiently.

### Key Properties of Absolute Values

Absolute values have distinct properties which make them a powerful tool in mathematics. Here are a few key properties of absolute values:

• Non-Negativity: For any real number $$x$$, $$|x| \geq 0$$. Absolute values are always non-negative.
• Identity Property: For any non-negative real number $$x$$, $$|x| = x$$. The absolute value of a positive number is the number itself.
• Symmetry: For any real number $$x$$, $$|-x| = |x|$$. The absolute value treats positive and negative numbers equally.
• Triangle Inequality: For any real numbers $$x$$ and $$y$$, $$|x + y| \leq |x| + |y|$$. This property is essential in many areas like geometry and analysis.

Consider the numbers $$a = 4$$ and $$b = -3$$:

• The non-negativity property gives us $$|a| = 4$$ and $$|b| = 3$$.
• The identity property assures us that $$|4| = 4$$ and $$|-3| = 3$$.
• The symmetry property shows $$|-4| = 4$$ and $$|3| = 3$$.
• Using the triangle inequality property: $$|4 + (-3)| \leq |4| + |-3|$$, simplifies to: $$|1| \leq 7$$.

Using these properties can simplify complex problems. Remember always to apply them correctly based on the given conditions.

### Absolute Value and Distance

The absolute value can be used to calculate the distance between two points on the number line. This application is straightforward but highly useful in many mathematical contexts.

To find the distance between two points $$a$$ and $$b$$ on the number line, you can use the formula: $$|a - b|$$. Consider the points $$a = 7$$ and $$b = 2$$:

• Distance = $$|7 - 2|$$, which simplifies to $$|5| = 5$$.
• Alternatively, Distance = $$|2 - 7|$$, which simplifies to $$|-5| = 5$$.
In both cases, the distance remains the same, demonstrating that absolute value is independent of direction.

In more complex situations, the distance formula can be extended to higher dimensions. For instance, the distance between two points $$(x_1, y_1)$$ and $$(x_2, y_2)$$ in a two-dimensional plane can be found using the formula: $\text{Distance} = \sqrt{(x_2 - x_1)^2 + (y_2 - y_1)^2}$. This extension uses the concept of absolute value in higher dimensions, where the absolute value function is replaced with the Euclidean norm.

### Using Absolute Value in Real-World Problems

Absolute value is not just a theoretical concept; it has various practical applications in real-world problems. Understanding how to apply absolute value is critical for resolving real-life scenarios efficiently.

Absolute values are extensively used in engineering, physics, and economics:

• Error Margins: In measurements, the absolute error is given by $$| \text{measured value} - \text{true value} |$$.
• Financial Analysis: To find the deviation of a stock price from its mean, you can use $$|\text{price} - \text{average price}|$$.
• Physics: In mechanics, the absolute value is used to calculate the magnitude of vectors (e.g., velocity, force) regardless of direction.

In optimisation problems, the absolute value function is often used to linearise non-linear relationships. For example, in operations research, the objective function might include a term like $$|x - 5|$$ to represent deviations from a desired point. This function guides the optimisation algorithm to minimise or control deviations, highlighting the significance of absolute values in various scientific and engineering problems.

The absolute value helps eliminate negative signs, providing a straightforward way to understand magnitudes.

## Absolute Values - Key takeaways

• Absolute Value Definition: Absolute value of a number represents its distance from zero on the number line, without considering the direction, denoted by |x|.
• Absolute Value Function: A function that describes the absolute value of an expression, crucial for understanding distances and solving equations, represented graphically by a V-shaped curve.
• Absolute Value Equations: Equations where the variable appears inside absolute value bars, solved by considering both positive and negative scenarios of the expression inside the bars.
• Absolute Value Inequalities: Inequalities involving absolute value terms; solved by converting them into two separate inequalities reflecting both positive and negative cases.
• Absolute Value Properties: Key properties include non-negativity, identity, symmetry, and triangle inequality, which are foundational for simplifying complex problems.

#### Flashcards in Absolute Values 15

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What is the absolute value of a negative number?
The absolute value of a negative number is its positive counterpart. For example, the absolute value of -5 is 5. This is because absolute value measures the distance from zero on the number line, disregarding direction.
What is the absolute value of zero?
The absolute value of zero is 0.
How do you calculate the absolute value of a real number?
To calculate the absolute value of a real number, take the number itself if it is positive or zero. If the number is negative, take its opposite (positive value). For example, the absolute value of -5 is 5, and the absolute value of 3 is 3.
Is the absolute value function continuous?
Yes, the absolute value function is continuous. It does not have any breaks, jumps, or holes in its graph, ensuring that small changes in the input lead to small changes in the output.
What are some practical applications of absolute values?
Practical applications of absolute values include measuring distances regardless of direction, determining errors in scientific experiments, financial modelling to assess deviations from expected values, and signal processing to manage variations in data inputs.

## Test your knowledge with multiple choice flashcards

What is the absolute value of a number?

Does the absolute value function apply to expressions?

How is the absolute value of a complex number $$z = a + bi$$ calculated?

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