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Modern World History

How did modern nations and countries develop into their present forms? After the decline of Classical civilization (500 BCE to 500 CE), new nations and empires emerged. Which countries thrived and which civilizations collapsed under the changing circumstances of increased cultural interaction, globalization, industrialization, revolution, and global conflict?

Modern World History Timeline and Structure

The study of Modern World History is divided into a timeline of interconnected themes instead of a chronological history. These themes influence all societies and their developments during that period:

Dates

Period and Theme

1200-1450

The Post-Classical Period

Networks of Exchange

1450-1750

Growth of Empire and Colonization

1750-1900

Revolutions

The Industrial Age

1900-1950

Global Conflict and Globalization

1945-Present

The Cold War and Decolonization

Modern World History Focus

The study of “Modern” World History begins around 1200 CE. Why the year 1200? Between 600 CE and 1200 CE, most of the Classical Civilizations of Greece, Rome, Persia, Qin, Han, and Byzantine collapsed or were drastically declining in influence and power. Much of the world was in economic and political recovery from the vacuum left by these powerful nations. During this time, new states emerged, promoting a greater sense of interconnectedness through trade and exchanging ideas.

Studying modern world history involves focusing on:

  • how the themes above impacted and changed civilizations around the world
  • transformative events
  • how societies adapted or collapsed

Let's now take a brief look at modern world history events according to period and theme.

The Post-Classical Period & Networks of Exchange 1200-1450

During the postclassical era in Europe, Asia, and Africa, the cultures that survived the collapse, as well as new emerging nations, experienced political, social, cultural, and economic change that lay the foundation for their experience throughout history and even today.

Religion in World History

Key religious developments occurred in the postclassical era:

  • Islam emerged as a world religion and quickly became the religious and cultural foundation for one of the largest empires.
  • Buddhism expanded out of the sub-continent of Asia, influencing China, Korea, and most of South East Asia.
  • Christianity split between Roman Catholicism in the west and Orthodox Christianity in the east.

These religions offered a cultural identity for many in their regions during political turmoil and confusion. Identities and cultures would be solidified through religious nation-states and lay the foundation for future religious and cultural conflict.

Imperial China

Postclassical China is characterized by the emergence of imperial dynasties and systematic attempts at unifying much of western Asia. Beginning with the collapse of the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) and the establishment of the Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE), postclassical China saw evolutions in agriculture, economics, politics, and technology.

Dynasty: A line of succession or hereditary rulers from the same family

Modern World History Map of the Song Dynasty StudySmarterA map showing the region controlled by the Song Dynasty. Source: Wikimedia Commons (public domain)

Gunpowder is invented during this time in Imperial China and the origins of printing.

Medieval East Asia and the Spread of Dar al Islam

Medieval East Asia is most noted for the rapid expansion of Islamic influence and the establishment of Dar al Islam.

Dar al Islam: Means "The House of Islam", and refers to the territory and regions where Muslims are free to practice their religion and also often refers to regions controlled by Islamic law.

Like Christianity, Islam is expansionist by divine command. Both Muhammad and the Qur'an- the holy book of Islam- charge their followers with converting non-believers, and indeed, Muhammad's followers began to expand their influence and control over East Asia through trade, commerce, and military conquest.

Muhammad was the founder of Islam and the principal author of the Qur'an. He spent his life preaching and prophesizing the teachings of Islam until he died in 632CE.

The map below shows the spread of dar al-Islam by the 1200s.

Modern World History Map of the Abbasid Caliphate StudySmarterA map showing the ext of the Abbasid Caliphate and the spread of dar al-Islam in the early post-classical world. Source: Wikimedia Commons. CC-BY-3.0

Throughout the postclassical era in East Asia, the principal authority over the dar al-Islam was the Abbasid Dynasty. During this time, the region saw vast urban growth, the spread of food and crops, population growth, and most importantly: control over trade and commerce. The Abbasid Caliphate strengthened elaborate trade networks between Asia and Europe and reaped the economic benefits.

Post-Classical South Asia

As cultural, political, and economic developments occurred in Imperial China, this had a drastic influence on the societies of South Asia.

Postclassical South Asia

Korea

China, under the Tang Dynasty, had conquered most of the peninsula. Korea adopted Confucian and Buddhist traditions, political structures, and a robust agricultural economy.

Vietnam

Vietnam had a similar experience with China as the Koreans did. Vietnam quickly replicated Chinese agriculture and political techniques.

Japan

Japan came out of this period as one of the more influential nations in the region, having adopted Confucianism, Buddhism, a writing system, and the politics of imperial rule.

Post-Classical Americas

Between 700 and 1450, North America saw the rise and fall of the Mississippian culture. Little is known about the Indigenous Peoples of the Mississippi River Valley in the eastern United States, but we do know that they had a rigid social structure:

  • an upper class of priests and elite
  • a middle class of farmers and merchants
  • a lower class of slaves and prisoners of war

Between 1450 and 1600, many of these societies moved or collapsed.

Two cultures emerged in the southwestern United States: the Chaco and the Mesa Verde, both known for their innovative adaptations to the region's unique environment. By the 1200s, these groups began to move and decline, most likely due to changes in the climate.

In South America, three large and influential empires emerged: the Maya, Aztecs, and the Inca. The map and table below compare these three civilizations:

Modern World History Map of the Aztec, Inca and Mayan Empires StudySmarterThis map shows the territories of the Aztec (blue), Inca (green), and the Mayan (red) Empires. Source: Wikimedia Commons. CC-BY-3.0

Aztec

Inca

Maya

Territory

Central region of present-day Mexico

The region of the Andes Mountains on the west coast of South America

Southern portions of present-day Mexico and Central America

Period

1200-1521

1200-1533

400-1517

Agriculture

Corn, beans, squash, tomatoes

Corn, cotton, potatoes

Corn, beans, squash

Economic Trade

All three civilizations had some interconnected trade with the others.

Religion

Polytheistic (belief in multiple Gods) with some form of ritual human sacrifice

Politics

  • Ruled by a King

  • Made war for captives and slaves

  • City-states, each with their own king, would conduct wars to conquer territory for tribute.

Reasons for Decline

  • European diseases

  • Rebellion in conquered lands

  • Spanish invasion

Did you know?

All three civilizations used some form of step pyramid in their architecture. The Aztecs and Mayans had an incredibly accurate calendar. The Aztecs had floating gardens called "chinampas" and the Inca had an irrigation system designed for mountains called "waru waru".

Post-Classical Africa

Africa also saw the growth of powerful kingdoms during the post-classical era.

The Rise of African Kingdoms

Ghana

Ghana was founded in the 400s but rose to prominence between the 700s and 1100s as Ghana’s rulers sold gold and ivory to Muslim traders for salt, cloth, weapons, and other Asian goods.

Mali

Ghana would eventually be weakened by continued pressure and attacks from nearby societies. In its place rose the mighty kingdom of Mali. Under the leadership of Sundiata and Mansa Musa, the Empire experienced territorial expansion and lavish wealth.

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe on the east coast thrived through utilizing maritime trade. The interaction between the Arabic world and their own led to the creation of the Swahili language, a combination of Bantu and Arabic.

Ethiopia

The Kingdom of Axum, in present-day Ethiopia, was a Christian-led African kingdom that prospered from trade between India, Arabia, the Mediterranean, and the interior nations of Africa.

Modern World History Map of post-classical African Kingdoms StudySmarterThis map shows several pre-colonial and post-classical African Kingdoms including Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Zimbabwe, Axum, and Ethiopia. Source: Wikimedia Commons. CC-BY-3.0.

Medieval Europe

Medieval Europe is defined by the struggle for political order after the collapse of the Roman Empire in 476 CE. This conflict is divided between two competing religious cultures - Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox Christianity- and the competing successor states to the Roman empire. With conflicting cultures, religions, and control, let’s compare the western and eastern regions of Medieval Europe.

Eastern EuropeWestern Europe

Political Control

With Constantinople as its capital, the Byzantine Empire controlled the eastern Mediterranean world through Greece, Anatolia, and Egypt.

Byzantium attempted to reconquer much of the old Roman Empire. Still, it fell short due to internal struggles and conflicts with the Islamic empires to the east and south.

The Franks (Carolingian Empire), under the leadership of Charlemagne (768-914 CE), attempted to solidify control over the western portions of the Roman Empire. At its peak, the empire controlled much of central Europe, including the Papal states of Rome. However, in 843, the Empire was divided and dissolved.

Economics

Byzantium had a flourishing peasant class, which created an agricultural surplus for the Empire.

As a region under more subdivided control, trade throughout western Europe happened in small-scale exchange in local markets.

Culture and Society

Byzantium was characterized by urbanization. Urbanization created an aristocratic class of merchants.

Western Europe was characterized by a more rural society than the East. The agricultural production created a small class of elites. The region was covered by towns that acted as trade hubs for those who lived in the countryside.

Modern World History Map of post-classical Europe StudySmarterA map of post-classical Europe before the collapse of the Carolingian Empire. Source: Wikimedia Commons (public domain)

The Rise and Fall of Empire & Colonization 1450-1750

Across the world, by the mid-1400s, people had created organized societies, distinctive cultures, and unique traditions. Agriculture dominated the economy in most of the world's civilizations, with the most powerful having the ability to manufacture textiles, spices, and other commodities.

These same civilizations created intricate trade networks that supported commerce, travel, and exchange.

  • Oceanic routes dominated the Indian Ocean connecting East Asia and Africa to the markets of the sub-continent and South Asia.
  • The Silk Roads connected those same markets to that of the Mediterranean and Europe.

The Silk Roads: A network of paths and land routes connecting civilizations in Europe and Africa to Asia civilizations and markets that was traveled from 200 BCE to approximately 1400 CE.

As these interconnections developed, so did the demand for goods and resources, and thus, the need for civilizations to expand, leading to an era of Empire and Colonization.

Land-Based Empires

Empires existed before the 1450s. However, between 1450 and 1750, the largest and most influential land empires reached their peak. Fueled by systems of trade and commerce to support large populations and control vast territories, these Empires shaped the political, cultural, and economic futures of the multiethnic states they held.

These empires included the Songhai of Africa, the Safavids in Persia, the Mughals in India, the Ottoman Empire in East Asia, and the Manchu Empire in China.

Maritime Empires

As well as land-based empires, the postclassical period also lay the foundations for maritime empires, which would eventually overtake the land empires in wealth and influence.

With the voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492, the first Atlantic trade networks were established. The Age of Exploration began.

Age of Exploration: The period of European exploration and discovery that lasted from approximately 1418 to 1620 CE.

Reasons for European Exploration

Resources and Fertile Land

The search for new resources to exploit and lands to cultivate commenced with the Portuguese in the 1200s. Soon other European nations followed the Portuguese example, such as Spain and the Netherlands.

Controlling the Trade Market

Even more alluring in the early years of exploration than new lands and resources was the possibility of establishing maritime trade routes to the markets of Asia.

Spreading Christianity

The purpose of expanding the boundaries of Christianity also drove Europeans into the larger world. Whether through persuasion or violence, overseas voyages offered fresh opportunities for western Europeans to spread their religion.

Over this period, large ocean-based empires evolved, with European nations indirectly controlling foreign regions through colonization.

Spain, Portugal, France, England, and the Netherlands would oversee the most extensive, wealthiest, and most powerful Empires the world has ever seen.

Transatlantic Slave Trade

African trade also influenced European exploration:

  • Since the 12th century, Europeans had purchased west African gold, ivory, and slaves.
  • Gold was an essential commodity because it was Europe’s primary form of payment for Asian goods.
  • Ocean trade routes that offered more direct access to African markets would benefit European merchants.

As the Age of Exploration continued to benefit European nations and North and South America were rediscovered, the need for labor in gold and silver mines and sugar and rice plantations increased the demand for enslaved labor. Portuguese trading posts on the west African coast became the epicenter of the Atlantic slave trade.

The Decline of Empires

In the three hundred years this theme covers, history saw the peak of Land-based empires, the creation, expansion, and domination of maritime empires, and the decline of both systems.

  • 1500s to 1600s: Many land-based empires began to see their power wain as maritime empires begin to reap the economic benefits of oceanic trade routes.
  • 1750s: Most land-based Empires had collapsed or become irrelevant. Maritime empires also began to struggle to control governments and citizens thousands of miles away, and some colonies became influenced by Enlightenment ideas of self-governance and natural rights.

Across the world, consumerism and peasant labor intensified the need for goods and food. Combined, these set the stage for colonial resistance and the subsequent revolutions, beginning in the 1750s.

Consumerism: A movement of political, economic, and social policies advocating greater protection and interests of consumers and the acquisition of consumer goods.

Revolutions & The Industrial Age 1750-1900

Beginning in the late 1600s through to the 1750s, empires and international trade expanded, leading to more interactions between societies. Philosophers began to question tradition, systems of government, and individualism over community values; this shift in thinking is known as the Enlightenment.

The Enlightenment: A philosophic movement in Europe of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition.

Enlightenment thinkers promoted four basic principles:

  1. a natural order to the world
  2. the power of human reason
  3. the natural rights of individuals, such as self-government
  4. the progressive improvement of society

These ideas challenged the roles of church leaders and the centralized power of the monarchy, sowing the seeds of revolution around the world.

Changes also happened in technology. The Industrial Revolution caused the creation of commodities to skyrocket, setting the stage for drastic changes in the worldwide economy, international relations, and politics.

The Industrial Revolution: The period of change beginning in the late 18th century from agrarian and cottage industry economies to ones dominated by industry and machine manufacturing.

Industrialization had its roots in agricultural improvements, preindustrial societies and economics, and the growth of technology.

  • The Agricultural Revolution: The Industrial Revolution first has its roots in the agricultural improvements of the early 1700s. Crop rotation and the invention of the seed drill led to increased productivity and, thus, more revenue and more food for a growing population.

  • Preindustrial Societies: As agricultural products became more available, it put a strain on the preindustrial economy and society creating a need for the development of machinery to produce more textiles more efficiently.

  • Growth of Technology: By the mid-1700s, technology began to match agricultural output. The invention of the spinning jenny, water frame, interchangeable parts, the cotton gin, and the organization of factories created an environment for rapid industrial growth.

The Industrial Revolution began in earnest in Great Britain but soon spread worldwide.

The Industrial Revolution brought about significant economic, political, and social changes:

  • It made goods cheaper and more accessible to more people.
  • The expanding need for labor in urban areas created a migration from rural to urban cities and migrations from agricultural countries to industrialized nations.
  • Global interconnectedness of trade and commerce and inequalities grew due to industrialization.
  • Nations that adapted to mechanization early needed more raw materials to feed production and more labor to fill the fields and factories.
  • Industrialized nations began to exploit overseas natural resources and started the second wave of imperialism and colonization.

Origins of Nationalism

Nationalism became a unifying force. Ethnic, cultural, and societal similarities of small communities within large multicultural empires threatened the empires' stability as these communities mixed with the philosophies of self-government, republicanism, democracy, and natural rights. Revolution and unification soon spread worldwide.

Nationalism: The advocacy of or support for the political independence of a particular nation or people.

Some of the major revolutions and unifications of the period include:

  • American Revolution (the 1760s to 1783)

  • French Revolution (1789 to 1799)

  • Haitian Revolution (1791 to 1804)

  • Serbian Revolution (1804 to 1835)

  • Latin American Wars of Independence (1808 to 1833)

  • Greek War of Independence (1821 to 1832)

  • Unification of Italy (1861)

  • Unification of Germany (1871)

Global Conflict 1900-1950

The twentieth century was a time of significant social and political change, which resulted in tension and division within and between nations. People and states challenged the existing political and social orders. At the same time, new technologies and advancements both improved our understanding of the universe and enabled two world wars to wreak havoc across the globe.

Global Power Shifts

Long-established states, such as the Ottoman Empire that had long influenced international politics and economics, dissolved. New political experiments began, such as communism in Russia, China, and other nations. The enduring power of nationalism and traditional rivalries, combined with economic instability, soon embroiled most of Europe, the United States, Japan, and China in the First World War.

Many saw World War I as the “war to end all wars,” yet World War II was far more significant in scope and destruction two decades after. Additional conflicts occurred throughout the twentieth century as colonized regions fought for independence.

World War I

These shifting global powers created escalating tensions that erupted into conflict.

  • European empires in Africa and Asia competed for raw materials.
  • An intricate series of alliances committed European nations to come to the defense of others.
  • An increase in nationalism and militarism led to an arms race between Germany, France, Britain, and Russia.

Causes and Effects of World War I

Causes

Effects

  • Militarism: Militarism is a belief that a state should have, and use, a well-funded and prepared military. Combined with nationalism, this made nations more prepared to undertake military action.

  • Alliances: Many European nations formed alliances to protect each other if one was attacked.

    This is why Germany and Russia entered the war so quickly, as Russia was the ally of Serbia, and Germany was the ally of Austria-Hungary.

  • Imperialism: The alliance system was also created to combat the European imperial powers' global domination.

  • Nationalism: Small communities of common ethnicity grew a strong sense of national identity, causing civil unrest in many of the large established empires. These groups such as Serbians within the Austria-Hungarian empire sought independence, which inspired violent action, such as Gavrilo Princip assassinating Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary.

  • Technology made WWI the deadliest and most destructive war in human history.

  • With the collapse of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, entire nations had to be redrawn in Europe and the Middle East.

  • Colonies began movements for independence.

  • Global power shifted from Europe to the United States.

  • The peace treaty - the Treaty of Versailles - blamed the war on Germany

The immediate cause of World War I was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Hungary by Gavrilo Princip of the Serbian nationalist group The Black Hand on June 28, 1914. This assassination caused Austria-Hungary to invade and declare war on Serbia, triggering the domino effect of defensive alliances across Europe.

Not long after the aftermath of World War I, the world found itself in an economic crisis resulting in the Great Depression of the 1930s and on a path that would lead to the outbreak of World War II.

Causes and Effects of World War II

Causes

Effects

  • Rise of Nazism in Germany: After WWI, the monarchy of Germany was replaced with the Weimar Republic, which struggled due to economic issues. Adolf Hitler emerged as the leader of the Nazi party.

  • The Axis Powers: Hitler created alliances with other Fascist-leaning nations. In 1936 the Rome-Berlin Axis was created between Germany and Italy, and an alliance with Japan soon followed.

  • Appeasement: Many of the European nations were still recovering from the aftermath of World War I so attempted to avoid military intervention - making compromises to appease Hitler.

  • Conflict over Poland: The policy of appeasement ended as Hitler turned to invade Poland. As preparations for invasion were being made, Britain and France declared their defense of Poland.

  • World War II was the most devastating war in human history.

  • The war changed people's thoughts about racism, imperialism, and international relations.

  • With the use of Atomic weapons by the United States on Japan in 1945, the world entered the age of nuclear weapons which profoundly changed international politics, military strategy, and domestic politics.

  • The United States came out of the war as a global superpower, changing the geopolitical landscape for the 20th century.

  • The end of the war set up the ideological battle between the United States and the Soviet Union that would shape global affairs for the next fifty years.

Germany was not the only instigator of World War II. Starting in 1931, Japan colonized portions of the Chinese mainland and Korea. By 1937, Japan controlled much of Manchuria and Korea. Tensions escalated into armed conflict with China in 1937, beginning World War II in Asia two years before Hitler invaded Poland.

The Global Cold War 1945-1990

After WWII ended, a global ideological conflict emerged between the two remaining world powers, the capitalist United States and the communist Soviet Union - this is known as the Cold War.

The Cold War: The period of political and military hostility that existed between the Soviet Union and its allies and the US-led Western powers from 1945 to 1990.

Capitalism: The economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.

Communism: The political and economic theory and system in which all property, trade, and industry is publicly owned or controlled by the state, and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.

The cost of war and the aftermath of World War II motivated the United States and the Soviet Union to avoid direct military conflict. The Cold War between the superpowers played out in propaganda, covert operations, and a military arms race.

The deadliest result of the Cold War occurred outside the lands of the two superpowers. Instead, each nation armed opposing sides in the capitalist versus communist conflicts worldwide, transforming minor civil conflicts into more significant events.

The Space Race was a technological and political propaganda competition between the Soviet Union and the United States, to achieve superior accomplishments in space flight. It had its origins in the nuclear arms race between the two nations following World War II, and culminated in the United States successfully landing a crew of men on the moon in 1969 on the Apollo 11 mission.

The effects of the Cold War

  • Allied occupation of Germany: After World War II, the Allies divided Germany under western and Soviet control resulting in the Berlin Blockade, the economic disparity between the two sides of Germany, and the construction and fall of the Berlin Wall.

  • Shifting Alliances: The Cold War brought about the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) as a means for western nations to defend themselves against the Soviets. The Warsaw Pact was the Soviet response to NATO, creating the “communist bloc.”

  • Proxy Wars: As mentioned above, the U.S. and Russia did not directly engage in military action but did take part in military actions in other nations to combat the spread of capitalism or communism. These conflicts include:

    • The Korean War

    • The Vietnam War

    • The Cuban Crisis

    • The Contra War

    • The Angola War

  • The Anti-Nuclear Movement: the nuclear arms race sparked social and political action to stop the spread, production, and influence of nuclear weapons in the global arms race.

Decolonization and Globalization 1945- Present

In the twentieth century, nationalist groups and leaders challenged colonial rule through land reform, political negotiation, and armed conflict. Empires became politically unacceptable, and European powers struggled to hold onto their colonies. Notions of freedom fostered by World War II rhetoric and Cold War propaganda helped speed up decolonization.

Decolonization: The process of a state or nation withdrawing political and economic control from a former colony, leaving it independent.

Significant Decolonization Movements:

  • India and Pakistan from Great Britain (1946)

  • Ghana from Great Britain (1957)

  • Algeria from France (1962)

  • Vietnam from France in 1954

  • Egypt from Britain (1952)

  • Nigeria from Britain (1960)

  • The creation of Israel in 1947

Modern World History Importance

Developing and understanding how the modern world came to be is essential to understanding current cultural, political, and social trends. Modern World History focuses on the cultures and histories of the nations and civilizations from all over the world that have influenced modern society. The study of Modern World History helps us understand different cultures as well as our own. It gives context to present-day problems and a better understanding of the changes that happen around us by putting them into a historical and global perspective.

Modern World History - Key takeaways

  • The study of “Modern” World History begins around 1200 CE when new states emerged, promoting a greater sense of interconnectedness through trade and exchanging ideas.
  • The postclassical era is one of the significant changes for societies in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Most classical empires collapsed due to internal struggles or external pressures.

  • Across the world, by the mid-1400s, people had created organized societies, distinctive cultures, and unique traditions.

  • Beginning in the late 1600s through to the 1750s, empires and international trade expanded, leading to more interactions between societies.

  • Along with philosophical changes came economic and technological changes. People continued becoming more interconnected through global trade.

  • People and states challenged the existing political and social orders.

  • At the same time, new technologies and advancements both improved our understanding of the universe and enabled two world wars to wreak havoc across the globe.

  • In the twentieth century, nationalist groups and leaders challenged colonial rule through land reform, political negotiation, and armed conflict.

  • Notions of freedom fostered by World War II rhetoric and Cold War propaganda helped speed up decolonization.

  • Developing and understanding how the modern world came to be is essential to understanding current cultural, political, and social trends.

Frequently Asked Questions about Modern World History

Modern world history looks at how new states emerged onto the world stage after the collapse of many of the classical civilizations, promoting a greater sense of interconnectedness through trade and exchanging ideas.

Modern world history looks at how civilizations worldwide have changed, looking at the transformative events and people of those societies as they adapted - or collapsed - in response to the rapidly changing world.

The study of “Modern” World History begins around 1200 CE. Why the year 1200? Between 600 CE and 1200 CE, most of the Classical Civilizations of Greece, Rome, Persian, Qin, Han, and Byzantine civilizations collapsed or were in a drastic decline of influence and power. Much of the world was in economic and political recovery from the vacuum left by these powerful classical nations. During this time, new states emerged onto the world stage, promoting a greater sense of interconnectedness through trade and exchanging ideas.

Modern World History shows how influential themes impacted and changed civilizations worldwide and how events have created the modern political, economic, and social world today. 

Modern World hHstory follows a similar chronology to the previous World History course but begins the study in the year 1200 C.E, not in Ancient History, before the year 1200 CE. 

Final Modern World History Quiz

Question

What year was the Magna Carta signed?

Show answer

Answer

1215

Show question

Question

Who signed the Magna Carta?

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Answer

King John

Show question

Question

Why was King John unpopular?

Show answer

Answer

He lost British land to King Philip of II and taxed barons to pay for it

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Question

What were two of the primary reasons the barons were mad at King John?

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Answer

He taxed them heavily and he unlawfully imprisoned people who didn't agree with him

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Question

What did the barons threaten if King John did not agree to their demands?

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Answer

Civil war

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Question

Which of the following is NOT a right provided by the Magna Carta?

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Answer

The right to own property

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Question

What does "vis et voluntas" refer to?

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Answer

The king's power to use "force and will" against subjects to get their way

Show question

Question

True or False: The Magna Carta gave rights to all people, whether they were right or poor.

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Answer

False

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Question

True or False: The Magna Carta did not help maintain peace and civil war broke out shortly after its signing

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Answer

True

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Question

Which of the following provisions did the Petition of Right of 1628 have in common with the Magna Carta?

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Answer

Protection against unlawful imprisonment

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Question

Which of the following did NOT lead to England having parliamentary supremacy?

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Answer

The American Revolution

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Question

Which of the following Constitutional provisions was directly influenced by the Magna Carta?

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Answer

The right to due process of law

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Question

What did the Magna Carta influence in the Constitution?

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Answer

The 5th Amendment to the Constitution and suspension of habeaus corpus

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Question

What year was the University of Bologna founded?

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Answer

1088

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Question

Who originally formed the University of Bologna?

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Answer

A group of students

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Question

What was the University of Bologna first known for teaching?

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Answer

Civics and law

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Question

What are "nationales"? 

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Answer

Guilds formed by foreign students to give themselves protection since they weren't citizens.

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Question

What led to high-quality teachers being forced to leave?

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Answer

The practice of paying teacher salaries through tax funds.

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Question

True or False: The practice of allowing nobles to teach without any qualifications led to a deterioration in quality.

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Answer

True

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Question

True of False: The humanist thinking of the University of Bologna flourished during the Renaissance period. 

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Answer

True

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Question

True or False: The University of Bologna flourished during the Reformation period.

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Answer

False

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Question

Why did the requirement to profess your faith created by the Catholic church forced Germanic students to leave?

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Answer

Because they were Protestant

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Question

Which of the following led to the decline of the University of Bologna in the 17th and 18th century?

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Answer

Plague, famine, and detoriation of the quality of education

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Question

What was the Accademia degli Inquieti  (Academy of the Restless)?

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Answer

A group of scholars who were dissatisfied with the decline of the university and wanted to revive it.

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Question

True or False: Physics, Mechanics, Optics, Obstetrics, Electrochemistry, and Chemistry were taught at the University of Bologna from the beginning.

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Answer

False

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Question

True or False: The University of Bologna is the oldest continously running university in the world.

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Answer

True

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Question

True or False: The University of Timbuktu had a strong central administration

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Answer

False

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Question

Which of the following led to the growth of Timbuktu in the medieval period?

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Answer

Its strategic location on trade routes and the Niger River

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Question

During what time period did Mansa Musa I incorporate Timbuktu into the Mali empire?

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Answer

The early 14th century

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Question

Who was the first ruler of Timbuktu?

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Answer

Mansa Musa I

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Question

What did Mansa Musa bring back with him from his Hajj to Mecca that helped establish the University of Timbuktu?

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Answer

Teachers and scholars from across the Muslim world

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Question

True or False: The University of Timbuktu is not one central university,  but rather three separate mosques

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Answer

True

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Question

Which of the three mosques is the oldest?

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Answer

Sankore Mosque

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Question

What led to the decline of Timbuktu?

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Answer

The invasion from Morrocco

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Question

Does the University of Timbuktu still operate today?

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Answer

No

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Question

What is Ahmad Baba famous for?

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Answer

The many texts he wrote on history and science

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Question

What is one of the major contributions of the University of Timbuktu?

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Answer

Information and texts about the Islamic world at the time

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Question

True or False: Today, the mosques of the University of Timbuktu are protected as UNESCO World Heritage Sites

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Answer

True

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Question

Where did the Black Plague originate?

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Answer

Asia

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Question

When did the Black Plague arrive in Europe?

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Answer

1347

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Question

What was the cause of the Black Plague infection?

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Answer

flea bites

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Question

How did the Black Plague spread to Europe?

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Answer

Rats carrying infected fleas traveled by ship between port cities.

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Question

How was trade a crucial factor in the spread of the Black Plague?

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Answer

Trade networks connected Europe, Asia, and North Africa.

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Question

How did the Black Plague spread so quickly once in Europe?

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Answer

crowded cities

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Question

What was the defining symptom of the Black Plague?

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Answer

swollen lymph nodes that seeped blood and pus

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Question

Was there an effective treatment for the Black Plague?

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Answer

No

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Question

How did the feudal system suffer as a result of the Black Plague?

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Answer

There was a shortage of workers and serfs gained bargaining power.

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Question

What were the long-term impacts of the Black Plague in Europe?

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Answer

the growth of a thriving middle class

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Question

A guild is similar to...

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Answer

A trade association

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Question

True or False: The early stages of the guild system helped lead to the creation of universities at Bologna, London, and Paris.

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Answer

True

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