Suggested languages for you:
|
|

## All-in-one learning app

• Flashcards
• NotesNotes
• ExplanationsExplanations
• Study Planner
• Textbook solutions

Save
Print
Edit

Herbert Hoover was an unpopular one-term President who had the misfortune of taking office shortly before the Great Depression hit the United States. Hoover's policies would be blamed by his adversaries for creating or worsening the U.S. economic crisis that began during his term. Hoover had only been in office for a few months before the crisis started but it grew steadily worse during his time. That's why Hoover's Administration accomplishments were dwarfed by the Great Depression and his legacy got to be defined by this crisis.

Portrait of Herbert Hoover in his early career. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

## Early Career and Election

Herbert Hoover had a strong record of success and public service. As a geologist, he had made millions of dollars in mining. He worked as a private citizen during World War I to help with evacuations and provided food to war-torn Europe. Later, he served in three presidential administrations.

His work in other administrations ranged from organizing humanitarian aid to infrastructure work as radio networks and civilian air travel spread across the United States. He was the Director of the United States Food Administration under Democrat Woodrow Wilson. He was the Secretary of Commerce under Republicans Calvin Coolidge and Warren G. Harding.

### 1928 Election

Hoover entered the 1928 presidential election as the candidate of the Republican Party. He faced off against Democrat Alfred E. Smith. Hoover won the election with the highest margin of electoral votes that had ever been counted. His success was due to the strong economy that had developed under the previous two Republican administrations, as well as intolerance of Smith's Catholicism at the time by Protestant voters.

President Herbert Hoover. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

## Herbert Hoover and the Great Depression

In September 1929, the stock market crashed and the U.S. economy entered the Great Depression. Many were left jobless, homeless, and hungry. It was the defining crisis of Hoover's administration. Despite being known for feeding Europeans during his time as a philanthropist, his unwillingness to have the government directly aid impoverished people led to Hoover's low popularity.

Black Tuesday:

It marks one of the darkest times for the economy during the Great Depression. On Tuesday, October 29th, 1929, the stock market plummeted to its lowest point, cutting the GDP by 15% worldwide for the next three years.

### Public Works and Other Actions

Despite often being criticized for being too far removed from helping Americans during the Great Depression, Hoover did offer some attempts to tackle the problems. He supported the creation of public works projects to bolster employment, this would later be a big part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal. He also had direct meetings with business leaders in an attempt to convince them to keep their employees and maintain their wages during the economic turbulence. He also supported the Reconstruction Finance Corporation which loaned money to help banks during the crisis.

### Conservative Principles

While Hoover had done a great amount of humanitarian work as a private citizen, he hid not believe that direct relief was the role of the Federal Government. Hoover strongly believed in the conservative principle of small government. His theory was that local governments and private charities should handle the needs of the poor.

#### Philanthropy and Public Relief during the Hoover Administration

Many local and state governments did attempt to help meet the needs of the citizens but they were quickly overwhelmed by the economic crisis. When they sought help from the Federal government, Hoover refused. Hoover promoted the idea that it was the responsibility of citizens to volunteer and give from their private resources to aid those in need. There was an increase in private philanthropy during Hoover's administration but it was not enough to meet the enormous need.

#### Welfare and a Balanced Budget

Hoover believed that large-scale welfare programs would be bad for the United States. He felt that if people were given money for not working, they would get too used to it and refuse to work. He also believed that the costs of such programs would be too great. His belief was that the government taking on a large debt would worsen the crisis, so he held firm to keep a balanced budget. This led to him being viewed by many of those suffering as cold or indifferent to their plight.

### Opposition in Congress

Although the Republican Party controlled Congress during the Hoover administration, it was still split into two wings. The Progressive wing of the Republican party wanted to provide direct relief to American citizens during the extraordinary crisis. The Democratic Party also had these goals. Together, bills were making their way through Congress by 1932 to provide food, jobs, and other direct relief. Hoover famously vetoed a bill before passing a bill with less help for individuals but more help for banks and industries.

## Hoover on Foreign Policy

Hoover sought a foreign policy based upon increased international cooperation. He pursued international disarmament, condemned aggression between nations, and tried to reduce United States interventions abroad. Ironically, one of the most famous bills he supported, the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, ended up severely undermining the increased cooperation Hoover worked for.

### Stimson Doctrine

The Hoover administration disapproved of Japanese aggression against China. Japan was considered a possible ally and the administration believed that more moderate voices in the Japanese government should be supported. The administration tried to walk the tight rope of not angering Japan while expressing their disapproval through the Stimson Doctrine. The Doctrine stated that the United States would not recognize any territorial changes which were created by force.

#### Latin America and the Banana Wars

Hoover did make good on some of his campaign promises but reducing the role of the United States in Latin America was mixed. In some ways he de-escalated in the region yet he still found new ways to become involved.

The Banana Wars, as well as the occupations of Nicaragua and Haiti, were all reduced or ended during his term. However, he did threaten action in the Dominican Republic and sent naval vessels to support the government of El Salvador.

## Public Opinion of Hoover

Hoover entered office riding the greatest presidential election victory that the country had ever seen. By the end of his term, he would lose in a decisive victory by Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Many members of his own party who had supported Hoover's 1928 presidential bid campaigned for Roosevelt in 1932. Several high-profile blunders combined with the general feeling that somehow Hoover had caused or worsened the Great Depression to reverse his initial popularity. He had come into office with the expectation that he would maintain the economic success of the Roaring 20s, which was not what happened.

### Smoot-Hawley Tariff

One of Hoover's popular campaign promises was that he would support farmers by raising prices on agricultural imports. Hoover left the drafting of the legislation in the hands of Conservative Republicans Senator Reed Smoot and House Representative Willis C. Hawley. They drafted very strong tariffs on both agricultural and industrial goods. Despite a petition of 1,000 economists against the bill, Hoover felt compelled to sign the legislation out of loyalty to his party and the campaign promise. The legislation resulted in retaliatory tariffs around the world which cut U.S. foreign trade in half and created barriers to diplomacy.

### Hoovervilles

In the wake of the Great Depression, many Americans were left homeless. From this arose large homeless camps around many major urban areas across the United States. The Publicity Director for the Democratic Party called them "Hoovervilles." Many people blamed Hoover and his unwillingness to provide direct economic support to Americans for the homelessness problem. The name Hoovervilles stuck and became the common term for the large homeless camps.

### The Bonus Army

As the economic situation worsened, many World War I vets who were still owed future payments on bonus money from their military service traveled to Washington, DC to demand immediate payment. Many of these veterans were now homeless and destitute, they formed the Bonus Army out of necessity. The House passed a bill to pay the men early, but Hoover was against the idea and the Senate did not pass it. When Congress refused to pay, the Bonus Army camped in Washington, DC, and refused to leave. Hoover told the police to clear the camp, which they did with excessive force, outraging Americans.

The Bonus Army clash with police officers. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

## 1932 Election

By the end of his term, Hoover was largely viewed as cold and uncaring for the plight of common people during the Great Depression. Many who had been affected desperately sought any form of relief. They were outraged that the Federal Government was not doing more to help them. Franklin Delano Roosevelt defeated Hoover by a large margin in 1932. The landslide that Hoover had ridden in on reversed directions and carried him out.

## Later Revaluation of Hoover's Presidency

After losing reelection, Hoover became an author and lecturer, concentrating on criticizing the New Deal and large government. Later Presidents from both parties, Truman and Eisenhower, brought him back into the Government. They assigned him to lead committees dedicated to the oversight of government inefficiency and waste. Some historians would later point out that although Hoover received a great deal of contemporary blame for the Great Depression, it lasted for another eight years under Roosevelt's plan and didn't truly end until World War II.

## Hoover Administration - Key takeaways

• Entered office in 1928 with the expectation that the economic success of previous Republican administrations would continue.
• The Great Depression occurred during the first year of the administration.
• Hoover's unwillingness for the Federal Government to provide direct relief during the Great Depression was extremely unpopular.
• Was defeated in 1932 by Franklin Delano Roosevelt, whose New Deal Policy promised stronger government intervention in the economic crisis.

The Hoover administration responded to the Great Depression by encouraging local governments and philanthropists to work together, instead of direct federal intervention.

The Hoover administration was the United States presidency of Herbert Hoover. The administration believed in small government and self-reliance as opposed to large federal answers to problems.

Herbert Hoover belonged to the Republican Party.

The adminstration of Herbert Hoover was unable to stop the Great Depression. Some believe that their policies made the Great Depression worse.

The Hoover administration was in power when the Great Depression struck the United States. Some believed that Herbert Hoover's policies made the crisis worse by not doing enough to tackle the issues.

Question

Many of those sent to Mexico during Mexican Repatriation were US citizens

True

Show question

Question

Most of Mexican Repatriation occured through a new legal process

False, due process was simply ignored

Show question

Question

Why did Mexican Repatriation end?

The US needed workers during WWII

Show question

Question

How were people sent to Mexico under Mexican Repatriation treated in Mexico?

Poorly, many in Mexico felt the repatriates had abandoned their country

Show question

Question

Who did President Hoover initially want to help with tariffs before the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act was negotiated?

Farmers

Show question

Question

What was an effect of the Smoot-Hawley Tarriff Act?

Countries around the world responded with tariffs that cut international trade

Show question

Question

What did Hoover ignore when he signed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff?

A petition signed by 1,000 economists

Show question

Question

Tariffs had long been a part of US economic policy before the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act

True

Show question

Question

How did Herbert Hoover do in the 1928 presidential election?

He won with the largest electoral college vote count in United States history

Show question

Question

How did Herbert Hoover do in the 1932 presidential election?

He lost the election in a landslide

Show question

Question

​What did Herbert Hoover believe would happen if people were given direct relief payments during the Great Depression?

They would become used to it and not work

Show question

Question

Who did Herbert Hoover believe should provide relief to individuals during the Great Depression

Local governments and private charities

Show question

Question

What was not something Hoover was criticized for during his presidency?

The New Deal

Show question

Question

Why did Hoover focus on maintaining a balanced budget?

He believed that putting the United States government in debt would make the Great Depression worse

Show question

Question

What did voters believe about Herbert Hoover when he came into office?

He would continue the economic sucess of the roaring 20s

Show question

Question

What about Hoover's 1928 presidential opponent were voters intolerant of?

His religion

Show question

Question

Which wing of the Republican Party did Herbert Hoover belong to?

Conservative

Show question

Question

Many members of Hoover's own party campaigned against him in 1932

True

Show question

Question

What did Herbert Hoover not do before becoming President?

Show question

Question

​Private philanthropy increased during the Hoover administration

True

Show question

Question

What did the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act do to tariffs?

It raised them on both agricultural and industrial goods

Show question

Question

How did the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act impact the political careers of Reed Smoot and Willis C. Hawley?

Neither were reelected

Show question

Question

Why did President Hoover sign the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act?

His campaign promise to raise agriculture tariffs and partisan support for Conservative Republicans

Show question

Question

President Hoover believed that the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act was a perfect piece of legislation for addressing international trade issues

False

Show question

Question

How did the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act change United States international trade?

From 1929 to 1933 US Trade:

• Imports decreased from $4.4 billion to$1.5 billion
• Exports decreased from $5.4 billion to$2.1 billion
• Gross National Product decreased from $103.1 billion to$55.6 billion

Show question

Question

How do economists believe the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act impacted the Great Depression?

Some believe that incoming tariffs were a part of the 1929 stock market crash. Others believe that the tariffs had little effect on the Great Depression.

Show question

Question

When did the Smoot-Hawley Tariffs end?

When President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act in 1934

Show question

Question

What were Mexican immigrants a scapegoat for during Mexican Repatriation?

The economic hardship of the Great Depression

Show question

Question

What did most Americans understand the phrase "American jobs for real Americans" to mean?

That white Americans deserved jobs which were being taken by Mexican Immigrants

Show question

Question

What happened at La Placita Park?

400 people of Mexican hertige were rounded up and deported

Show question

Question

How did President Franklin Delano Roosevelt feel about Mexica Repatriation?

He did not talk about it

Show question

Question

How did California address Mexican Repatriation in 2005?

The state governmnet formally apologized

Show question

Question

What was the Bracero Program?

The program to bring Mexican workers to the United States during WWII

Show question

60%

of the users don't pass the Hoover Administration quiz! Will you pass the quiz?

Start Quiz

## Study Plan

Be perfectly prepared on time with an individual plan.

## Quizzes

Test your knowledge with gamified quizzes.

## Flashcards

Create and find flashcards in record time.

## Notes

Create beautiful notes faster than ever before.

## Study Sets

Have all your study materials in one place.

## Documents

Upload unlimited documents and save them online.

## Study Analytics

Identify your study strength and weaknesses.

## Weekly Goals

Set individual study goals and earn points reaching them.

## Smart Reminders

Stop procrastinating with our study reminders.

## Rewards

Earn points, unlock badges and level up while studying.

## Magic Marker

Create flashcards in notes completely automatically.

## Smart Formatting

Create the most beautiful study materials using our templates.

Just Signed up?

No, I'll do it now