Javascript Statements

Dive deep into the core of computer science with a complete guide to Javascript statements. In this comprehensive resource, you will gain a clear understanding of Javascript statements, from defining them to applying them in real-life situations. Discover the nuts and bolts of variables assignments, conditional statements, print statements and break statements, supplemented with practical examples. Plus, we provide insight into best practices for writing effective Javascript statements. A must-read for every aspiring programmer, this guide is the key to unlocking your potential in Javascript coding.

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Table of contents

    Understanding Javascript Statements

    In your journey to learn more about computer science, especially the web development sector, you'll quickly come across a crucial aspect known as Javascript Statements. But what exactly are they?

    In essence, Javascript Statements are commands or instructions given to the browser to perform specific functions. These statements instruct a browser how to act, creating dynamic and interactive web content.

    Javascript Statements are the building blocks of Javascript, a powerful programming language indispensable in today's web development landscape.

    Defining Javascript Statements

    There are various categories of Javascript Statements, each performing different functions. Some of the common Javascript Statements include:
    • Variable statements
    • Condition statements
    • Function declarations
    Each kind of Javascript Statement plays a unique role in the execution of a Javascript code.

    Variables Assignment in Javascript Statements

    A common kind of Javascript statement is the variable assignment. In variable assignment, you're assigning a particular value to a variable that can later be invoked in your Javascript program.

    For instance, let us assume you're assigning the value 5 to a variable named "number". In Javascript, this assignment will look something like this:

    var number;
    number = 5;
    In this scenario, 'var' declares the variable, 'number' is the variable name, and '5' is the value you're assigning to the variable.
    This is the basic concept of variable assignment in Javascript Statements.

    You can use whatever name you prefer for your variables, as long as they follow Javascript's naming conventions. For example, variable names must not begin with a number or contain any spaces or special characters, barring the underscore (_) and the dollar sign ($).

    Explanation of Javascript Statements Syntax

    The syntax of Javascript Statements is very much crucial for you to master. It's the arrangement of symbols and characters to form a correctly structured Javascript statement. Javascript has a specific syntax for each of its statement types. Here, however, we'll focus on the syntax of a basic Javascript Statement, which generally consists of a keyword, arguments, and usually ends with a semicolon:
    As an example, let's consider the alert keyword, which displays a pop-up with a message on the screen:
    alert("Hello, World!");
    In the above code, "alert" is the keyword, and "Hello, World!" is the argument. The entire command is a complete Javascript statement. Remember, getting a firm grasp on Javascript Statements will help you navigate various web development tasks with greater ease as you delve deeper into the world of computer science.

    Javascript Conditional Statements

    One integral part of JavaScript statements is the conditional statement. These statements allow you to control the execution of code depending on whether a given condition is met or not.

    Comprehensive Guide to Javascript Conditional Statements

    In Javascript, conditional statements are a method of decision making. They allow the execution of different blocks of code based on different conditions. There are three kinds of Javascript conditional statements:
    • If Statement
    • If...else Statement
    • Switch Statement
    An If Statement is written with the 'if' keyword, followed by a condition in parentheses, and a code block enclosed in curly braces ({ }). Only when the condition is true, the enclosed code block gets executed. If the condition is false, nothing happens. \[ \text{if (condition) \{ code\_to\_be\_executed\_if\_condition\_is\_true \} } \] Next is the If...else Statement. It's a slight variation on the If Statement. In this case, if the provided condition is false, an alternative block of code is executed instead. It can be written as: \[ \text{if (condition) \{ code\_to\_be\_executed\_if\_condition\_is\_true \} else \{ code\_to\_be\_executed\_if\_condition\_is\_false \} } \] A Switch Statement is yet another type of Javascript Conditional Statement. Unlike If...else Statements that can only handle true or false, Switch Statements handle multiple different conditions, each with its code block. \[ \text{switch (condition) \{ case\_value1 : code\_to\_be\_executed\_if\_condition=case\_value1 ; break; case\_value2:code\_to\_be\_executed\_if\_condition=case\_value2 ; break; .... default: code\_to\_be\_executed\_if\_condition\_doesn’t\_match\_any\_cases \} } \] With a switch, each condition is a 'case', and each case has its associated block of code. A default case is always provided to handle the situation where none of the other cases matches the actual condition.

    Javascript Conditional Statement Examples

    To better understand each of these, let's go through some examples: If Statement:
    if (5 > 3) {
        alert("Five is greater than three.");
    Here, if the condition 5 > 3 is true, the alert "Five is greater than three." will appear. If...Else Statement:
    if (5 < 3) {
        alert("Five is less than three.");
    } else {
        alert("Five is greater than three.");
    In this example, since 5 is not less than 3, the statement after the 'else' keyword will execute, displaying "Five is greater than three." Switch Statement:
    var fruit = "Apple";
    switch (fruit) {
        case "Banana":
            alert("This is a banana.");
        case "Apple":
            alert("This is an apple.");
            alert("This is not a banana or an apple.");
    In this switch statement, if the variable 'fruit' is 'Banana', it will display "This is a banana." If it's 'Apple', it'll display "This is an apple." For all other cases, the default message "This is not a banana or an apple." will be displayed. Understanding Javascript Conditional Statements, how they function and when to use them is crucial. They're powerful tools in your JavaScript coding arsenal, giving you the ability to add logic and complexity to your scripts.

    Digging into the Print Statement in Javascript

    A significant aspect of learning Javascript is understanding how to use output commands, similar to what is termed the "print" statement in several other programming languages. In Javascript, there is no built-in "print" statement like in Python or C. Instead, you can achieve a similar outcome using several methods. This includes employing alert(), console.log(), and document.write() methods.

    How to Use Print Statement in Javascript

    Let's delve into these three primary methods for outputting or 'printing' data in Javascript: 1. Alert(): The alert() method displays a message in a dialog box (pop-up window), with an 'OK' button. This method is commonly used during debugging to see the value of variables. Remember, though, using excessive pop-up windows can be disruptive, and some browsers allow users to block them. 2. Console.log(): The console.log() method is a debugging tool that prints output to the browser's JavaScript console. It is beneficial during the development process as it doesn't interfere with the user interface, and it can handle multiple arguments and different data types. 3. Document.write(): The document.write() method writes a string of text to a document. This output command writes directly to the HTML document where the script is running. It's important to note that calling document.write() after an HTML document has fully loaded will clear and replace the entire document's contents. Therefore, it's mostly used for testing and simple script writing. Every coding operation in Javascript demands that the developer understands the exact requirements of what they aim to do, and choosing the right method for printing to the output is no different. Each method mentioned above can be considered a 'print' statement in Javascript, but which to use depends on the specific scenario or your specific needs at that time.

    Print Statement in Javascript Examples

    Here are some examples for each of the methods explained: 1. Alert() method:
    alert("Hello, World!");
    In this example, a dialog with the text "Hello, World!" would pop up in your browser. 2. Console.log() method:
    console.log("Hello, World!");
    By using this code, "Hello, World!" will be printed into your browser's Javascript console. You can see this text using browser tools for developers. 3. Document.write() method:
    document.write("Hello, World!");
    Upon execution of this script, "Hello, World!" will be written directly into the HTML of the webpage where this script is running. Diving deep into the 'print' statement in Javascript, you must understand that while there might not be a direct 'print' function, like in other languages, Javascript provides you with various methods to achieve a similar result. Understanding when and how to use these methods will significantly enhance your web development skill-set.

    In-depth Look at Break Statement in Javascript

    Within the wide range of Javascript statements, 'break' is a specific instruction not to be overlooked. This distinct command is used in programming to control the flow of execution, as it primarily exists to break out of a loop or switch case prematurely.

    Functions and Usage of Break Statement in Javascript

    The 'break' statement in Javascript serves a distinct purpose. It is generally utilised during the execution of a loop or a switch case. When the Javascript interpreter encounters a 'break' statement, the control is immediately transferred out of the current looping structure or switch case, bypassing the normal loop end routine. The main usage scenarios of the 'break' statement are:
    • To end a loop prematurely, skipping the remaining iterations.
    • To exit from a case in a switch structure.
    In the context of a loop, when the 'break' statement is encountered, the interpreter immediately exits the current loop regardless of its initial termination condition. It essentially 'breaks' the loop, hence the name. However, when it comes to using 'break' in a switch case, it helps prevent the 'fall-through' phenomenon. When a 'break' keywords is encountered after a case scenario in a switch statement, the control is immediately transferred out of the switch statement, preventing it from inadvertently executing code of the next case as well. This ensures the accurate execution of each specific case, without any interference from subsequent cases. In Javascript, the 'break' statement can only be used in conjunction with a loop or a switch case. Its use outside these structures would lead to a SyntaxError. So, remember, the 'break' statement adds yet another layer of control over the execution of your Javascript code.

    Break Statement in Javascript with Examples

    Now, let us consider some examples to better understand the use of 'break' statement in Javascript. Break in Loops:
    for (let i = 0; i <= 10; i++) {
        if (i == 5) {
    The above 'for' loop is meant to print numbers from 0 through 10. However, because of the 'break' statement, when the variable 'i' equals 5, the loop breaks, and the numbers after 5 are not printed. The output would be numbers from 0 to 4. Break in Switch case:
    var color = "Red";
    switch (color) {
        case "Blue":
            alert("Color is Blue."); 
        case "Red":
            alert("Color is Red."); 
            alert("Color is neither Blue nor Red."); 
    For instance, in this switch structure, each 'alert' command would execute based on the result of the variable 'color'. Here, 'color' is 'Red' so it will display "Color is Red". Because of the 'break' command after the 'Red' case, the execution control will exit the switch statement right after the alert and not execute the default case. Without a 'break' here, it would have unnecessarily executed the next case as well. Grasping the way 'break' statement works in Javascript is key to effectively control the execution flow in your code. It not only increases the flexibility but when used wisely, it can also enhance the efficiency of your Javascript scripts.

    Practical Application of Javascript Statements

    Just like any other programming language, the power of Javascript lies not just in understanding its core concepts, but in applying them to solve real-world problems. Javascript statements are the essential building blocks of your code, in that they are the single lines that instruct the system to perform a certain action. By piecing together these individual commands, you're able to perform complex tasks, making your code interact with user inputs, manipulate data, control the web page’s content and more.

    Showcasing Real-Life Javascript Statements Examples

    To illustrate the power of Javascript statements, let's walk through a few real-life examples. This will not only reinforce your understanding of these building blocks but also demonstrate how you can use them in your coding journey. Example 1 - Online Form Validation: Imagine you're creating a signup form for a website. You would likely use Javascript statements to handle the form validation process. You might use 'if' statements to check the validity of each input, 'break' statements to exit the loop as soon as an invalid entry is found, and 'alert' statements to notify the user of any issues.
    var username = document.forms["RegForm"]["Name"];
    var email = document.forms["RegForm"]["EMail"];
    if (username.value == "") {
        window.alert("Please enter your name.");
        return false;
    if (email.value == "") {
          "Please enter a valid e-mail address.");
        return false;
    Example 2 - Slideshow Gallery: For a website that features a slideshow gallery, you may use Javascript 'while' or 'for' loops to cycle through images. You would also likely use 'if' statements to return to the first image once the last image in the sequence has been displayed.
    var i = 0;
    var images = [];
    var time = 3000;
    images[0] = 'image1.png';
    images[1] = 'image2.png';
    images[2] = 'image3.png';
    function changeImg(){
       document.slide.src = images[i];
       if (i < images.length - 1){
       } else {
         i = 0;
      setTimeout("changeImg()", time);
    window.onload = changeImg;
    Each of these examples demonstrates how Javascript statements can be used in real-life scenarios to create dynamic, interactive features on a website.

    Best Practices When Writing Javascript Statements

    As you grow in your coding journey, you'll realise that knowing how to write code is one thing, but writing it well is another. Here are some best practices to follow when writing Javascript statements:
    • Prioritise readability: Use proper indentation, consistent naming conventions, and include comments to describe what your code is doing. This not only benefits others who may look at your code, but it also helps you, especially when you need to revisit a code you wrote a while back.
    • Keep it simple: Write small, simple functions that do one thing. If a function does too many things, it becomes harder to understand, debug, and maintain.
    • Avoid using global variables: They can be altered anywhere in your code, making debugging incredibly complicated. Use local variables whenever possible.
    • Always declare variables: Javascript will allow you to use a variable without declaring it first, automatically making it a global variable. To prevent this, always declare your variables with the 'var', 'let', or 'const' keywords.
    • Validate user input: Never trust data provided by users. Always validate and sanitize user inputs to protect your site from malicious code.
    In programming, making your code work is just the starting line. The goal is to write clean, efficient, and maintainable code. It reflects professionalism and your commitment to pursuing best coding practices. No matter your coding level, these best practices apply and contribute to your growth and efficiency as a developer.

    Javascript Statements - Key takeaways

    • Javascript Statements include variable assignment, which allows a specific value to be assigned to a variable that can be invoked later in a program.
    • Javascript Statements Syntax refers to the arrangement of symbols and characters to form correctly structured statements, usually consisting of a keyword, arguments and ending with a semicolon.
    • Javascript Conditional Statements control the execution of code. There are three types: 'If Statement', 'If...else Statement', 'Switch Statement'. Each allows the execution of different blocks of code based on conditions.
    • The Print Statement in Javascript is used to output data. It is not a built-in command as in other languages, but can be achieved using methods like alert(), console.log(), and document.write().
    • The Break Statement in Javascript is used to control the flow of execution, it is used to prematurely exit a loop or switch case.
    Javascript Statements Javascript Statements
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    Frequently Asked Questions about Javascript Statements
    What is the function of control flow statements in Javascript?
    Control flow statements in Javascript direct the order in which the code executes. They include conditional statements like 'if', 'else', and 'switch', and loops like 'for' and 'while', which allow code to be repeated based on certain conditions.
    What is the purpose of conditional statements in Javascript?
    Conditional statements in Javascript are used to perform different actions based on different conditions. They help in controlling the program flow and making decisions based on specific criteria being met.
    How can I correctly use loop statements in Javascript?
    Loop statements in JavaScript are used to perform repetitive tasks. There are several types of loops, including for, while, and do...while. You initiate a loop using the relevant syntax, and use conditions to dictate when the loop should terminate. It's crucial to avoid conditions that lead to infinite loops.
    What are the significant differences between iterative and selection statements in Javascript?
    Iterative statements in Javascript, like 'for' or 'while', are used to repeatedly execute a block of code until a certain condition is met. On the other hand, selection statements, such as 'if', 'else' and 'switch', execute a block of code based on a specific condition.
    How can I effectively utilise Javascript's exception handling statements?
    You can effectively utilise JavaScript's exception handling statements by using the 'try' and 'catch' syntax. This lets you test block of code for errors (try), and control the program flow when an error occurs (catch). Other statements are 'throw' and 'finally'.

    Test your knowledge with multiple choice flashcards

    What are the three types of conditional statements in Javascript?

    What are some real-life applications of Javascript statements?

    What is the syntax of a basic Javascript Statement?


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